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# Physics 111: Mechanics

Lecture 7
Dale Gary
NJIT Physics Department

Potential Energy and
Energy Conservation

Work
Kinetic Energy
Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem
Gravitational Potential Energy
Elastic Potential Energy
Work-Energy Theorem
Conservative and
Non-conservative Forces
Conservation of Energy

07/11/15

Definition of Work W

The work, W, done by a constant force on an
object is defined as the product of the
component of the force along the direction of
displacement and the magnitude of the
displacement

W  ( F cos  )x

F is the magnitude of the force
Δ x is the magnitude of the
object’s displacement r
r
 is the angle between F and x
07/11/15

Work Done by Multiple
Forces

If more than one force acts on an object,
then the total work is equal to the
algebraic sum of the work done by the
individual forces

Wnet   Wby individual forces

Remember work is a scalar, so
this is the algebraic sum

Wnet  Wg  WN  WF  ( F cos  )r
07/11/15

Kinetic Energy and Work  Kinetic energy associated with the motion of an object1 2 KE  2 mv Scalar quantity with the same unit as work  Work is1related 1 to2 kinetic energy 2  mv  mv0  ( Fnet cos  )x 2 2 Units: N-m or J xf   F dr xi Wnet  KEf  KEi  KE 07/11/15 .

Work done by a Gravitational Force  Gravitational Force    Magnitude: mg Direction: downwards to the Earth’s center Wnet  1 2 1 2 mv  mv0 2 2 Work done by Gravitational Force r r W  F r cos   F  r Wg  mgr cos  07/11/15 .

Potential Energy    Potential energy is associated with the position of the object Gravitational Potential Energy is the energy associated with the relative position of an object in space near the Earth’s surface The gravitational potential energy PE  mgy     m is the mass of an object g is the acceleration of gravity y is the vertical position of the mass relative the surface of the Earth SI unit: joule (J) 07/11/15 .

it must remain fixed for the entire problem 07/11/15 .Reference Levels  A location where the gravitational potential energy is zero must be chosen for each problem   The choice is arbitrary since the change in the potential energy is the important quantity Choose a convenient location for the zero reference height    often the Earth’s surface may be some other point suggested by the problem Once the position is chosen.

Work and Gravitational Potential Energy  PE = mgy  Wg  F y cos   mg ( y f  yi ) cos180   mg ( y f  yi )  PEi  PE f Units of Potential Energy are the same as those of Work and Kinetic Energy Wgravity  KE  PE  PEi  PE f  07/11/15 .

then KE f  KEi  PEi  PE f KE f  PE f  PEi  KEi  The sum of the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy remains constant at all time and hence is a conserved quantity 07/11/15 . Extended Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem can be extended to include potential energy: Wnet  KEf  KEi  KE Wgravity  PEi  PE f  Wnet  Wgravity If we only have gravitational force.

Extended Work-Energy Theorem  We denote the total mechanical energy by E  KE  PE KE f  PE f  PEi  KEi  Since  The total mechanical energy is conserved and remains the same at all times 1 2 1 2 mvi  mgyi  mv f  mgy f 2 2 07/11/15 .

Problem-Solving Strategy Define the system  Select the location of zero gravitational potential energy    Do not change this location while solving the problem Identify two points the object of interest moves between   One point should be where information is given The other point should be where you want to find out something 07/11/15 .

0 m above the water surface  (b) Find his speed as he hits the water  07/11/15 . Neglect air resistance.0 m above the water’s surface.  (a) Find is speed 5.Platform Diver A diver of mass m drops from a board 10.

0 m above the water surface 1 2 1 mvi  mgyi  mv 2f  mgy f 2 2 1 0  gyi  v 2f  mgy f 2 v f  2 g ( yi  y f )  2(9.8m / s 2 )(10m  5m)  9.Platform Diver  (a) Find his speed 5.9m / s  (b) Find his speed as he hits the water 0  mgy  1 mv 2  0 i f 2 v f  2 gyi  14m / s 07/11/15 .

etc. k  Hooke’s Law gives  the force   F  kd   F is in the opposite direction of displacement d. k depends on how the spring was formed.Spring Force Involves the spring constant. the material it is made from. 07/11/15 . always back towards the equilibrium point. Unit: N/m. thickness of the wire.

Potential Energy in a Spring  Elastic Potential Energy:    1 2 PEs  kx 2 SI unit: Joule (J) related to the work required to compress a spring from its equilibrium position to some final. position x Work done by the spring Ws   xf xi 1 2 1 2 (kx)dx  kxi  kx f 2 2 Ws  PEsi  PEsf 07/11/15 . arbitrary.

then Wnet  Wgravity  Ws ( KE f  KEi )  ( PE f  PEi )  ( PEsf  PEsi )  0 KE f  PE f  PEsf  PEi  KEi  KE si 07/11/15 . Extended Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem can be extended to include potential energy: Wnet  KEf  KEi  KE Wgravity  PEi  PE f  Ws  PEsi  PEsf If we include gravitational force and spring force.

Extended Work-Energy Theorem  We denote the total mechanical energy by E  KE  PE  PEs ( KE  PE  PEs ) f  ( KE  PE  PEs ) i  Since  The total mechanical energy is conserved and remains the same at all times 1 2 1 1 1 mvi  mgyi  kxi2  mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f 2 2 2 2 07/11/15 .

The block is pressed back against a spring having a constant of k = 625 N/m. Then the block is released.0 cm to point A. compressing the spring by 10. (a) Find the maximum distance d the block travels up the frictionless incline if θ = 30°.5-kg block rests on a horizontal. (b) How fast is the block going when halfway to its maximum height? 07/11/15 .   A block projected up a incline A 0. frictionless surface.

yi  0. x f  0 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 mvi  mgyi  kxi  mv f  mgy f  kx f 2 2 2 2 1 2 kxi  mgy f  mgd sin  2 1 2 2 kxi mg sin  0. xi  10cm  0.5(625 N / m)(0.1m) 2  (0.5kg )(9.  d A block projected up a incline Point A (initial state):vi  0.1m Point B (final state): v f  0.8m / s 2 ) sin 30  1.28m 07/11/15 . y f  h  d sin  .

  A block projected up a incline Point A (initial state):vi  0...64m k 2 vf  xi  gh m  .28m) sin 30  0.. yi  0. y f  h / 2  d sin  / 2.5m / s 07/11/15 . x f  0 1 2 1 1 1 mvi  mgyi  kxi2  mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 h k 2 kxi  mv f  mg ( ) xi  v 2f  gh 2 2 2 m h  d sin   (1.1m Point B (final state): v f  ?.  2. xi  10cm  0...

EM forces Nonconservative forces   The forces are generally dissipative and work done against it cannot easily be recovered Examples: Kinetic friction. tension forces.Types of Forces  Conservative forces    Work and energy associated with the force can be recovered Examples: Gravity. Spring Force. air drag forces. normal forces. applied forces … 07/11/15 .

Conservative Forces  A force is conservative if the work it does on an object moving between two points is independent of the path the objects take between the points     The work depends only upon the initial and final positions of the object Any conservative force can have a potential energy function associated with it Work done by gravity Wg  PEi  PE f  mgyi  mgy f Work done by spring force 1 2 1 2 Ws  PEsi  PEsf  07/11/15 kxi  kx f 2 2 .

Nonconservative Forces  A force is nonconservative if the work it does on an object depends on the path taken by the object between its final and starting points. potential energy can NOT be defined Work done by  a nonconservative force Wnc   F  d   f k d   Wotherforces It is generally dissipative.     The work depends upon the movement path For a non-conservative force. The dispersal of energy takes the form of heat or sound 07/11/15 .

 Extended Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem can be written as: Wnet  KEf  KEi  KE Wnet  Wnc  Wc    Wnc represents the work done by nonconservative forces Wc represents the work done by conservative forces Any work done by conservative forces can be accounted for by changes in potential Wc  PEenergy i  PE f   Gravity work Wg  PEi  PE f  mgyi  mgy f 1 2 1 2 W  PEi  PE f  kxi  kx f Spring force work s 2 2 07/11/15 .

Extended Work-Energy Theorem  Any work done by conservative forces can be accounted for by changes in potential energy Wc  PEi  PE f  ( PE f  PEi )  PE Wnc  KE  PE  ( KE f  KEi )  ( PE f  PEi ) Wnc  ( KE f  PE f )  ( KEi  PEi )  Mechanical energy includes kinetic and potential energy 1 2 1 2 E  KE  PE  KE  PE g  PEs  mv  mgy  kx 2 2 Wnc  E f  Ei 07/11/15 .

drag force …)  Without non-conservative forces   1 2 1 1 1 mv f  mgy f  kx 2f  mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 2 2 2 2 With non-conservative forces Wnc  ( KE f  PE f )  ( KEi  PEi ) 1 1 1 1  fd   Wotherforces  ( mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f )  ( mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 ) 2 2 2  Select the location2 of zero potential energy   Do not change this location while solving the problem Identify two points the object of interest moves between   One point should be where information is given The other point should be where you want to find out something 07/11/15 .Problem-Solving Strategy Define the system to see if it includes non-conservative forces (especially friction.

When the block is momentarily stopped by the spring.Conservation of Mechanical Energy A block of mass m = 0. It runs into and compresses a spring of spring constant k = 750 N/m.50 m/s.40 kg slides across a horizontal frictionless counter with a speed of v = 0. by what distance d is the springWcompressed?  ( KE  PE )  ( KE  PE )  nc f f 1 2 1 1 1 mv f  mgy f  kx 2f  mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 2 2 2 2 i i 1 2 1 2 0  0  kd  mv  0  0 2 2 1 1 0  0  kd 2  mv 2  0  0 2 2 d 07/11/15 m 2 v  1.15cm k .

Changes in Mechanical Energy for conservative forces  A 3-kg crate slides down a ramp. 1 1 1  fd   Wotherforces  ( mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f )  ( mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 ( mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f )  ( mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 d  1m. Use energy methods to determine the speed of the crate at the bottom of the1ramp. The ramp is 1 m in length and inclined at an angle of 30° as shown.5m.1m / s 07/11/15 . vi  0 y f  0. The crate starts from rest at the top. The surface friction can be negligible. v f  ? 1 ( mv 2f  0  0)  (0  mgyi  0) 2 v f  2 gyi  3. yi  d sin 30  0.

5m. 1 1 1 1  fd   Wotherforces  ( mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f )  ( mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 N 1 2   k Nd  0  ( mv f  0  0)  (0  mgyi  0) 2 fk  k  0.7 m / s 07/11/15 .Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative forces  A 3-kg crate slides down a ramp. d  1m.15. The surface in contact have a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0.15. N  ? N  mg cos   0   k dmg cos   1 2 mv f  mgyi 2 v f  2 g ( yi   k d cos  )  2. Use energy methods to determine the speed of the crate at the bottom of the ramp. yi  d sin 30  0. The crate starts from rest at the top. The ramp is 1 m in length and inclined at an angle of 30° as shown.

The ramp is 1 m in length and inclined at an angle of 30° as shown.15. The surface in contact have a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0. vi  2. N  ? N  mg  0 1   k mgx   mvi2 2 2 v x  i  2.7 m / s. How far does the crate slide on the horizontal floor if it continues to experience a friction force. 1 1 1 1  fd   Wotherforces  ( mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f )  ( mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 1   k Nx  0  (0  0  0)  ( mvi2  0  0) 2  k  0.5m 2 k g 07/11/15 .15.Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative forces  A 3-kg crate slides down a ramp. The crate starts from rest at the top.

8kg vA  (1.8 kg is given an initial velocity v A = 1. Assuming the surface to be frictionless. 1 1 1 1 mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f  mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 mvmax  0  0  mv A  0  0 2 2 xmax  m 0.Block-Spring Collision  A block having a mass of 0.2 m/s to the right and collides with a spring whose mass is negligible and whose force constant is k = 50 N/m as shown in figure.2m / s )  0. calculate the maximum compression of the spring after the collision.15m k 50 N / m 07/11/15 .

with µk = 0. Suppose a constant force of kinetic friction acts between the block and the surface. 1 1 1 1  fd   Wotherforces  ( mv 2f  mgy f  kx 2f )  ( mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 1 1   k Nd  0  (0  0  kxc2 )  ( mv A2  0  0) 2 2 N  mg and d  xc 1 2 1 2 kxc  mv A    k mgxc 2 2 25 xc2  3. what is the maximum compression xc in the spring.Block-Spring Collision  A block having a mass of 0.9 xc  0.2 m/s to the right and collides with a spring whose mass is negligible and whose force constant is k = 50 N/m as shown in figure.093m 07/11/15 .8 kg is given an initial velocity v A = 1.58  0 xc  0.5.

Energy Review  Kinetic  Energy Associated with movement of members of a system  Potential   Determined by the configuration of the system Gravitational and Elastic  Internal  Energy Energy Related to the temperature of the system 07/11/15 .

it can only be due to the fact that energy has crossed the boundary of the system by some method of energy transfer 07/11/15 .Conservation of Energy  Energy   is conserved This means that energy cannot be created nor destroyed If the total amount of energy in a system changes.

Ways to Transfer Energy Into or Out of A System       Work – transfers by applying a force and causing a displacement of the point of application of the force Mechanical Waves – allow a disturbance to propagate through a medium Heat – is driven by a temperature difference between two regions in space Matter Transfer – matter physically crosses the boundary of the system. carrying energy with it Electrical Transmission – transfer is by electric current Electromagnetic Radiation – energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves 07/11/15 .

The block of mass m1 lies on a horizontal surface and is connected to a spring of force constant k.Connected Blocks in Motion  Two blocks are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley. The system is released from rest when the spring is unstretched. If the hanging block of mass m2 falls a distance h before coming to rest. fd block Wotherforce s  KE  PE 1 PE  PE g  PEs  (0  m2 gh)  ( kx 2  0) 2 1   k Nx  0  m2 gh  kx 2 2 N  mg and xh 1   k m1 gh   m2 gh  kh 2 2 1 m2 g  kh 2 k  m1 g 07/11/15 . calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction betweenthe of mass m1 and the surface.

Power Work does not depend on time interval  The rate at which energy is transferred is important in the design and use of practical device  The time rate of energy transfer is called power  The average power is given by  W P t  when the method of energy transfer is work 07/11/15 .

Instantaneous Power Power is the time rate of energy transfer. Power is valid for any means of energy transfer W Fx P    Fv  Other expression t t   A more general definition of instantaneous  W dW dr   power P  lim  F  F v t 0 t dt dt   P  F  v  Fv cos  07/11/15 .

lb/s = 746 W  Units of power can also be used to express units of work or energy  1 kWh = (1000 W)(3600 s) = 3.6 x10 6 J 07/11/15 .Units of Power  The  SI unit of power is called the watt 1 watt = 1 joule / second = 1 kg . m2 / s3 A unit of power in the US Customary system is horsepower  1 hp = 550 ft .

48  10 4 W P  64.Power Delivered by an Elevator Motor A 1000-kg elevator carries a maximum load of 800 kg.8kW  86.16 10 4 N P  Fv  (2. What minimum power must the motor deliver to lift the fully loaded elevator at a constant speed of 3 m/s? F  ma  net . y y T  f  Mg  0 T  f  Mg  2.9hp 07/11/15 . A constant frictional force of 4000 N retards its motion upward.16  10 4 N )(3m / s )  6.