4 views

Uploaded by William Rolando Miranda Zamora

save

- physicsfinalproject
- Energy
- GAMSAT Section III topics
- Work Energy Power
- Penny EP Stuff > EngQ22002
- Ch13
- + 1 feb(2)
- Binder 1
- Energy
- CH 7_8 Work & Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
- tb_chapter5
- Lecture 20
- Phy130 Tutorial 5 Student
- work_energy
- Report 1
- Conservation of Energy Lab Report
- Nicola Tesla, Tsela, and the Garden of Eden
- Bitsat Physics Syllabus
- Energy 1
- Class Xi Physics Half Yearly
- Martec2014 Paper Me-17
- Science Curriculum - ICT Links
- ElectricalProrectPresent
- S12P2BChap28Solutions(1)
- SOW FORM1
- 2357 Typological Evolution of High Rise Buildings in Terms of Thermodynamics and Energy Formation
- Fluid Mechanic-Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
- As Level Physics 2011 Smak Gs Kbi Measurement
- Thermo Chapter_2_lecture.pdf
- University Physics - Young & Freedman [13E]-Split-merge
- Chapter 19
- vejarano2017
- 0362-028x-62.1.40
- PARA ANALISIS EL DÌA SABADO.pdf
- dudek1983.pdf
- vidal2012.pdf
- Pereira 2016
- dudek1983.pdf
- 12-64. Mr. w.m.c.b Wasala 64 Ok
- A Novel Color Parametric Technique for Kinetic
- (Inf. Gigartina Ch_351rrepe)
- Vidal 2012
- Bourne Report Lowres Final
- Lista de Precios Libun
- (9)
- PYT,_Informe_Final,_GreenLemon,_v1.pdf
- High Pressure Destruction Kinetcs of Clostridium Sporogenes
- Tablas_peruanas_composición_alimentos_2013.pdf
- Simpson 2012
- Coleman_Brenda_L_200811_PhD_thesis.pdf.pdf
- REGLAMENTO FORTIFICACIÓN DE SAL.pdf
- ec.nte.0277.1978.pdf
- Papaya
- d02161.pdf
- tesis203
- Understanding High Risk
- Dias 2007
- uga_jams_jellies.pdf
- Practica 7
- appert-daryllund11

You are on page 1of 41

Lecture 7

Dale Gary

NJIT Physics Department

**Potential Energy and
**

Energy Conservation

Work

Kinetic Energy

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

Gravitational Potential Energy

Elastic Potential Energy

Work-Energy Theorem

Conservative and

Non-conservative Forces

Conservation of Energy

07/11/15

Definition of Work W

**The work, W, done by a constant force on an
**

object is defined as the product of the

component of the force along the direction of

displacement and the magnitude of the

displacement

W ( F cos )x

**F is the magnitude of the force
**

Δ x is the magnitude of the

object’s displacement r

r

is the angle between F and x

07/11/15

**Work Done by Multiple
**

Forces

**If more than one force acts on an object,
**

then the total work is equal to the

algebraic sum of the work done by the

individual forces

Wnet Wby individual forces

**Remember work is a scalar, so
**

this is the algebraic sum

Wnet Wg WN WF ( F cos )r

07/11/15

Kinetic Energy and Work Kinetic energy associated with the motion of an object1 2 KE 2 mv Scalar quantity with the same unit as work Work is1related 1 to2 kinetic energy 2 mv mv0 ( Fnet cos )x 2 2 Units: N-m or J xf F dr xi Wnet KEf KEi KE 07/11/15 .

Work done by a Gravitational Force Gravitational Force Magnitude: mg Direction: downwards to the Earth’s center Wnet 1 2 1 2 mv mv0 2 2 Work done by Gravitational Force r r W F r cos F r Wg mgr cos 07/11/15 .

Potential Energy Potential energy is associated with the position of the object Gravitational Potential Energy is the energy associated with the relative position of an object in space near the Earth’s surface The gravitational potential energy PE mgy m is the mass of an object g is the acceleration of gravity y is the vertical position of the mass relative the surface of the Earth SI unit: joule (J) 07/11/15 .

it must remain fixed for the entire problem 07/11/15 .Reference Levels A location where the gravitational potential energy is zero must be chosen for each problem The choice is arbitrary since the change in the potential energy is the important quantity Choose a convenient location for the zero reference height often the Earth’s surface may be some other point suggested by the problem Once the position is chosen.

Work and Gravitational Potential Energy PE = mgy Wg F y cos mg ( y f yi ) cos180 mg ( y f yi ) PEi PE f Units of Potential Energy are the same as those of Work and Kinetic Energy Wgravity KE PE PEi PE f 07/11/15 .

then KE f KEi PEi PE f KE f PE f PEi KEi The sum of the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy remains constant at all time and hence is a conserved quantity 07/11/15 . Extended Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem can be extended to include potential energy: Wnet KEf KEi KE Wgravity PEi PE f Wnet Wgravity If we only have gravitational force.

Extended Work-Energy Theorem We denote the total mechanical energy by E KE PE KE f PE f PEi KEi Since The total mechanical energy is conserved and remains the same at all times 1 2 1 2 mvi mgyi mv f mgy f 2 2 07/11/15 .

Problem-Solving Strategy Define the system Select the location of zero gravitational potential energy Do not change this location while solving the problem Identify two points the object of interest moves between One point should be where information is given The other point should be where you want to find out something 07/11/15 .

0 m above the water surface (b) Find his speed as he hits the water 07/11/15 . Neglect air resistance.0 m above the water’s surface. (a) Find is speed 5.Platform Diver A diver of mass m drops from a board 10.

0 m above the water surface 1 2 1 mvi mgyi mv 2f mgy f 2 2 1 0 gyi v 2f mgy f 2 v f 2 g ( yi y f ) 2(9.8m / s 2 )(10m 5m) 9.Platform Diver (a) Find his speed 5.9m / s (b) Find his speed as he hits the water 0 mgy 1 mv 2 0 i f 2 v f 2 gyi 14m / s 07/11/15 .

etc. k Hooke’s Law gives the force F kd F is in the opposite direction of displacement d. k depends on how the spring was formed.Spring Force Involves the spring constant. the material it is made from. 07/11/15 . always back towards the equilibrium point. Unit: N/m. thickness of the wire.

Potential Energy in a Spring Elastic Potential Energy: 1 2 PEs kx 2 SI unit: Joule (J) related to the work required to compress a spring from its equilibrium position to some final. position x Work done by the spring Ws xf xi 1 2 1 2 (kx)dx kxi kx f 2 2 Ws PEsi PEsf 07/11/15 . arbitrary.

then Wnet Wgravity Ws ( KE f KEi ) ( PE f PEi ) ( PEsf PEsi ) 0 KE f PE f PEsf PEi KEi KE si 07/11/15 . Extended Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem can be extended to include potential energy: Wnet KEf KEi KE Wgravity PEi PE f Ws PEsi PEsf If we include gravitational force and spring force.

Extended Work-Energy Theorem We denote the total mechanical energy by E KE PE PEs ( KE PE PEs ) f ( KE PE PEs ) i Since The total mechanical energy is conserved and remains the same at all times 1 2 1 1 1 mvi mgyi kxi2 mv 2f mgy f kx 2f 2 2 2 2 07/11/15 .

The block is pressed back against a spring having a constant of k = 625 N/m. Then the block is released.0 cm to point A. compressing the spring by 10. (a) Find the maximum distance d the block travels up the frictionless incline if θ = 30°.5-kg block rests on a horizontal. (b) How fast is the block going when halfway to its maximum height? 07/11/15 . A block projected up a incline A 0. frictionless surface.

yi 0. x f 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 mvi mgyi kxi mv f mgy f kx f 2 2 2 2 1 2 kxi mgy f mgd sin 2 1 2 2 kxi mg sin 0. xi 10cm 0.5(625 N / m)(0.1m) 2 (0.5kg )(9. d A block projected up a incline Point A (initial state):vi 0.1m Point B (final state): v f 0.8m / s 2 ) sin 30 1.28m 07/11/15 . y f h d sin .

A block projected up a incline Point A (initial state):vi 0...64m k 2 vf xi gh m .28m) sin 30 0.. yi 0. y f h / 2 d sin / 2.5m / s 07/11/15 . x f 0 1 2 1 1 1 mvi mgyi kxi2 mv 2f mgy f kx 2f 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 h k 2 kxi mv f mg ( ) xi v 2f gh 2 2 2 m h d sin (1.1m Point B (final state): v f ?. 2. xi 10cm 0...

EM forces Nonconservative forces The forces are generally dissipative and work done against it cannot easily be recovered Examples: Kinetic friction. tension forces.Types of Forces Conservative forces Work and energy associated with the force can be recovered Examples: Gravity. Spring Force. air drag forces. normal forces. applied forces … 07/11/15 .

Conservative Forces A force is conservative if the work it does on an object moving between two points is independent of the path the objects take between the points The work depends only upon the initial and final positions of the object Any conservative force can have a potential energy function associated with it Work done by gravity Wg PEi PE f mgyi mgy f Work done by spring force 1 2 1 2 Ws PEsi PEsf 07/11/15 kxi kx f 2 2 .

Nonconservative Forces A force is nonconservative if the work it does on an object depends on the path taken by the object between its final and starting points. potential energy can NOT be defined Work done by a nonconservative force Wnc F d f k d Wotherforces It is generally dissipative. The work depends upon the movement path For a non-conservative force. The dispersal of energy takes the form of heat or sound 07/11/15 .

Extended Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem can be written as: Wnet KEf KEi KE Wnet Wnc Wc Wnc represents the work done by nonconservative forces Wc represents the work done by conservative forces Any work done by conservative forces can be accounted for by changes in potential Wc PEenergy i PE f Gravity work Wg PEi PE f mgyi mgy f 1 2 1 2 W PEi PE f kxi kx f Spring force work s 2 2 07/11/15 .

Extended Work-Energy Theorem Any work done by conservative forces can be accounted for by changes in potential energy Wc PEi PE f ( PE f PEi ) PE Wnc KE PE ( KE f KEi ) ( PE f PEi ) Wnc ( KE f PE f ) ( KEi PEi ) Mechanical energy includes kinetic and potential energy 1 2 1 2 E KE PE KE PE g PEs mv mgy kx 2 2 Wnc E f Ei 07/11/15 .

drag force …) Without non-conservative forces 1 2 1 1 1 mv f mgy f kx 2f mvi2 mgyi kxi2 2 2 2 2 With non-conservative forces Wnc ( KE f PE f ) ( KEi PEi ) 1 1 1 1 fd Wotherforces ( mv 2f mgy f kx 2f ) ( mvi2 mgyi kxi2 ) 2 2 2 Select the location2 of zero potential energy Do not change this location while solving the problem Identify two points the object of interest moves between One point should be where information is given The other point should be where you want to find out something 07/11/15 .Problem-Solving Strategy Define the system to see if it includes non-conservative forces (especially friction.

When the block is momentarily stopped by the spring.Conservation of Mechanical Energy A block of mass m = 0. It runs into and compresses a spring of spring constant k = 750 N/m.50 m/s.40 kg slides across a horizontal frictionless counter with a speed of v = 0. by what distance d is the springWcompressed? ( KE PE ) ( KE PE ) nc f f 1 2 1 1 1 mv f mgy f kx 2f mvi2 mgyi kxi2 2 2 2 2 i i 1 2 1 2 0 0 kd mv 0 0 2 2 1 1 0 0 kd 2 mv 2 0 0 2 2 d 07/11/15 m 2 v 1.15cm k .

Changes in Mechanical Energy for conservative forces A 3-kg crate slides down a ramp. 1 1 1 fd Wotherforces ( mv 2f mgy f kx 2f ) ( mvi2 mgyi kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 ( mv 2f mgy f kx 2f ) ( mvi2 mgyi kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 d 1m. Use energy methods to determine the speed of the crate at the bottom of the1ramp. The ramp is 1 m in length and inclined at an angle of 30° as shown.5m.1m / s 07/11/15 . vi 0 y f 0. The crate starts from rest at the top. The surface friction can be negligible. v f ? 1 ( mv 2f 0 0) (0 mgyi 0) 2 v f 2 gyi 3. yi d sin 30 0.

5m. 1 1 1 1 fd Wotherforces ( mv 2f mgy f kx 2f ) ( mvi2 mgyi kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 N 1 2 k Nd 0 ( mv f 0 0) (0 mgyi 0) 2 fk k 0.7 m / s 07/11/15 .Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative forces A 3-kg crate slides down a ramp. d 1m.15. The surface in contact have a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0.15. N ? N mg cos 0 k dmg cos 1 2 mv f mgyi 2 v f 2 g ( yi k d cos ) 2. Use energy methods to determine the speed of the crate at the bottom of the ramp. yi d sin 30 0. The crate starts from rest at the top. The ramp is 1 m in length and inclined at an angle of 30° as shown.

The ramp is 1 m in length and inclined at an angle of 30° as shown.15. The surface in contact have a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0. vi 2. N ? N mg 0 1 k mgx mvi2 2 2 v x i 2.7 m / s. How far does the crate slide on the horizontal floor if it continues to experience a friction force. 1 1 1 1 fd Wotherforces ( mv 2f mgy f kx 2f ) ( mvi2 mgyi kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 1 k Nx 0 (0 0 0) ( mvi2 0 0) 2 k 0.5m 2 k g 07/11/15 .15.Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative forces A 3-kg crate slides down a ramp. The crate starts from rest at the top.

8kg vA (1.8 kg is given an initial velocity v A = 1. Assuming the surface to be frictionless. 1 1 1 1 mv 2f mgy f kx 2f mvi2 mgyi kxi2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 mvmax 0 0 mv A 0 0 2 2 xmax m 0.Block-Spring Collision A block having a mass of 0.2 m/s to the right and collides with a spring whose mass is negligible and whose force constant is k = 50 N/m as shown in figure.2m / s ) 0. calculate the maximum compression of the spring after the collision.15m k 50 N / m 07/11/15 .

with µk = 0. Suppose a constant force of kinetic friction acts between the block and the surface. 1 1 1 1 fd Wotherforces ( mv 2f mgy f kx 2f ) ( mvi2 mgyi kxi2 ) 2 2 2 2 1 1 k Nd 0 (0 0 kxc2 ) ( mv A2 0 0) 2 2 N mg and d xc 1 2 1 2 kxc mv A k mgxc 2 2 25 xc2 3. what is the maximum compression xc in the spring.Block-Spring Collision A block having a mass of 0.9 xc 0.2 m/s to the right and collides with a spring whose mass is negligible and whose force constant is k = 50 N/m as shown in figure.093m 07/11/15 .8 kg is given an initial velocity v A = 1.58 0 xc 0.5.

Energy Review Kinetic Energy Associated with movement of members of a system Potential Determined by the configuration of the system Gravitational and Elastic Internal Energy Energy Related to the temperature of the system 07/11/15 .

it can only be due to the fact that energy has crossed the boundary of the system by some method of energy transfer 07/11/15 .Conservation of Energy Energy is conserved This means that energy cannot be created nor destroyed If the total amount of energy in a system changes.

Ways to Transfer Energy Into or Out of A System Work – transfers by applying a force and causing a displacement of the point of application of the force Mechanical Waves – allow a disturbance to propagate through a medium Heat – is driven by a temperature difference between two regions in space Matter Transfer – matter physically crosses the boundary of the system. carrying energy with it Electrical Transmission – transfer is by electric current Electromagnetic Radiation – energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves 07/11/15 .

The block of mass m1 lies on a horizontal surface and is connected to a spring of force constant k.Connected Blocks in Motion Two blocks are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley. The system is released from rest when the spring is unstretched. If the hanging block of mass m2 falls a distance h before coming to rest. fd block Wotherforce s KE PE 1 PE PE g PEs (0 m2 gh) ( kx 2 0) 2 1 k Nx 0 m2 gh kx 2 2 N mg and xh 1 k m1 gh m2 gh kh 2 2 1 m2 g kh 2 k m1 g 07/11/15 . calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction betweenthe of mass m1 and the surface.

Power Work does not depend on time interval The rate at which energy is transferred is important in the design and use of practical device The time rate of energy transfer is called power The average power is given by W P t when the method of energy transfer is work 07/11/15 .

Instantaneous Power Power is the time rate of energy transfer. Power is valid for any means of energy transfer W Fx P Fv Other expression t t A more general definition of instantaneous W dW dr power P lim F F v t 0 t dt dt P F v Fv cos 07/11/15 .

lb/s = 746 W Units of power can also be used to express units of work or energy 1 kWh = (1000 W)(3600 s) = 3.6 x10 6 J 07/11/15 .Units of Power The SI unit of power is called the watt 1 watt = 1 joule / second = 1 kg . m2 / s3 A unit of power in the US Customary system is horsepower 1 hp = 550 ft .

48 10 4 W P 64.Power Delivered by an Elevator Motor A 1000-kg elevator carries a maximum load of 800 kg.8kW 86.16 10 4 N P Fv (2. What minimum power must the motor deliver to lift the fully loaded elevator at a constant speed of 3 m/s? F ma net . y y T f Mg 0 T f Mg 2.9hp 07/11/15 . A constant frictional force of 4000 N retards its motion upward.16 10 4 N )(3m / s ) 6.

- physicsfinalprojectUploaded byapi-295869449
- EnergyUploaded byapi-3806615
- GAMSAT Section III topicsUploaded byMohamed
- Work Energy PowerUploaded byAthulRKrishnan
- Penny EP Stuff > EngQ22002Uploaded byapi-3724699
- Ch13Uploaded byanas2013
- + 1 feb(2)Uploaded byNoel Saji Paul
- Binder 1Uploaded byLim Oi Han
- EnergyUploaded byapi-3755159
- CH 7_8 Work & Kinetic Energy and Potential EnergyUploaded byMelinda
- tb_chapter5Uploaded byJerry Hunt
- Lecture 20Uploaded byAyam Mas
- Phy130 Tutorial 5 StudentUploaded byShuhaila Hanis Rosli
- work_energyUploaded byapi-3728553
- Report 1Uploaded byMarcus O'Mahony
- Conservation of Energy Lab ReportUploaded byCường Trí Nguyễn Đình
- Nicola Tesla, Tsela, and the Garden of EdenUploaded bycaedsuiram
- Bitsat Physics SyllabusUploaded byAbhishekThakur
- Energy 1Uploaded bySwetank Pandey
- Class Xi Physics Half YearlyUploaded byLungmuaNa Rante
- Martec2014 Paper Me-17Uploaded byRizky Wahyu Satria
- Science Curriculum - ICT LinksUploaded byDavid Mc Mahon
- ElectricalProrectPresentUploaded byProsenjit Ghosh
- S12P2BChap28Solutions(1)Uploaded byAlbert Tregal
- SOW FORM1Uploaded byRusnizaAR
- 2357 Typological Evolution of High Rise Buildings in Terms of Thermodynamics and Energy FormationUploaded byLeOn Wzz 众
- Fluid Mechanic-Fundamentals of Fluid FlowUploaded byAlbany Smash
- As Level Physics 2011 Smak Gs Kbi MeasurementUploaded byJoshuaUntung
- Thermo Chapter_2_lecture.pdfUploaded byFattihiEkhmal
- University Physics - Young & Freedman [13E]-Split-mergeUploaded byChristian Galope

- Chapter 19Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- vejarano2017Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- 0362-028x-62.1.40Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- PARA ANALISIS EL DÌA SABADO.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- dudek1983.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- vidal2012.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Pereira 2016Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- dudek1983.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- 12-64. Mr. w.m.c.b Wasala 64 OkUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- A Novel Color Parametric Technique for KineticUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- (Inf. Gigartina Ch_351rrepe)Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Vidal 2012Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Bourne Report Lowres FinalUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Lista de Precios LibunUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- (9)Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- PYT,_Informe_Final,_GreenLemon,_v1.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- High Pressure Destruction Kinetcs of Clostridium SporogenesUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Tablas_peruanas_composición_alimentos_2013.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Simpson 2012Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Coleman_Brenda_L_200811_PhD_thesis.pdf.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- REGLAMENTO FORTIFICACIÓN DE SAL.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- ec.nte.0277.1978.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- PapayaUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- d02161.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- tesis203Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Understanding High RiskUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Dias 2007Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- uga_jams_jellies.pdfUploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- Practica 7Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- appert-daryllund11Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora