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Key Topics
15-1 Population Dynamics
15-2 Urbanization
15-3 Environmental Issues

Population Dynamics

Population Dynamics
Demography: the scientific study of human
Examines size, composition, distribution of
Looks at changes and causes of changes in

Population Dynamics
Population: a group of people who share a
geographic territory
Vary in size from a small town to the planet

5 billion by 2005 Expected to reach 9.Population Dynamics World’s population Grown rapidly since 1800 Reached 1 billion in 1804 6.4 billion by 2050 .

Population Dynamics .

Population Dynamics Fertility: the number of babies born during a specific period in a particular society Crude birth rate: the number of live births per 1. and 13 for the U.000 population in a given year In 2011 the CBR was 20 worldwide. .S. 36 for Africa.

.. In the U. birth rates are lower for the more affluent and those with more education.S.Population Dynamics Birth rates vary within a country.

Population Dynamics Mortality: the number of deaths during specified period in a population Crude death rate: the number of deaths per 1.000 people in a population in a given year 2011 crude death rate    World 8 U. 8 Some African countries 15 .S.

6 South America 18 Afghanistan 131 .S.000 live births 2011 mortality rate    U.Population Dynamics Infant mortality rates: the number of deaths among infants under 1 year of age per 1.

78 (below at least 25 other developed countries) .Population Dynamics Life expectancy: the average number of years that people who were born at the same time will live 2011 life expectancy   World 70 U.S.

Population Dynamics Migration: the movement of people into or out of a specific geographic area Push factors: encourage people to leave Pull factors: attract people to new area .

Population Dynamics International migration: the movement across a national border   Emigrants move out of a country Immigrants move into a country Internal migration: movement within a country .

a family moved to Minnesota in search of work. Josh’s family moved from Louisiana to Texas after Hurricane Katrina. . After a beef plant closed in Iowa. A family moved from Afghanistan to France to escape the war.Population Dynamics—Application Identify the type of migration and push or pull factors.

Population Dynamics Sex ratio: the proportion of males to females in a group    100—equal numbers of males and females 95—fewer males than females 105—fewer females than males .

Population Dynamics Population pyramid: a visual representation of the age and sex structure of a population at a given point in time Allows demographers to predict future needs of a population .

Population Dynamics .

. Food supply grows arithmetically.Population Dynamics Malthusian theory: the belief that the population is growing faster than the food supply needed to sustain it (Thomas Malthus 1798) Population will outdistance food supply.   Population grows geometrically.

Population Dynamics Neo-Mathusians agree that the world population is exploding beyond food supplies. Number of hungry people in the world increased to 1. Earth has become a dying planet with increasing population and pollution.02 billion in 2009. .

. and urbanization. Development involves industrialization. technological advancements. modernization.Population Dynamics Demographic transition theory: maintains the population growth is kept in check and stabilizes as countries experience economic development.

Population Dynamics Stages in the demographic transition: 1—Preindustrial: high birth rates and high death rates 2—Early industrialization: high birth rates and lower death rates (population growth) 3—Advanced industrialization: lower birth rates and death rates (lower growth rate) 4—Postindustrial: low birth and death rates (stability or decrease in population) .

Population Dynamics .

.Population Dynamics Zero population growth: each woman has no more than two children resulting in a stable population. Many nations are now experiencing zero population growth.

Urbanization .

Urbanization City: a geographic area where a large number of people live relatively permanently and make a living through nonagricultural activities Urbanization: the movement of people from rural areas to cities .

a majority of the world’s population lived in urban areas for the first time in history. . In 2008.Urbanization The Industrial Revolution created a surge in urbanization as people moved to cities in search of jobs and improved living conditions.

Urbanization .

Urbanization Megacities: metropolitan areas with at least 10 million inhabitants Becoming more common By 2025.S. . there will be 37 megacities in the world with 3 in the U.

More than 60% of Americans reside in suburbs. the fastest growing counties are near metropolitan areas.S.Urbanization In U. Suburbanization: movement from cities to the areas surrounding them.. .

Urbanization Edge cities: business centers that are within or close to suburban residential areas Exurbs: areas of new development beyond suburbs on the fringe of urbanized areas .

Urbanization Urban sprawl: the rapid. and uncontrolled spread of urban development into neighboring regions     Loss of farmland. and open recreation areas Increased cost of purchasing and maintaining automobiles Air and water pollution Job sprawl . forests. unplanned. wildlife habitats.

Urbanization Gentrification: the process of buying and renovating houses and stores by middle-class and affluent people in downtown urban neighborhoods Revitalizes urban areas and augments taxes Results in displacement of low-income people and small business .

Urbanization Racial segregation: as suburbs expanded.” . low- income African Americans were left in the central cities with few housing and employment choices Decreasing but average black or Latino household lives in a poorer neighborhood Suburbs are becoming “ethnoburbs.

Urbanization Sociological explanations of urbanization: How and why do cities change? How do the changes affect populations? .

Urbanization: Functionalism Functionalists developed theories of urban ecology: the study of the relationships between people and their urban environment Theories analyzed the growth of cities into different patterns. .

Urbanization: Functionalism Concentric zone: city grows outward in a series of rings Sector theory: pie-shaped wedges radiate from central business district Multi-nuclei: city contains multiple centers Peripheral: suburbs and edge cities develop through highway development .

Urban changes are influenced by the dominant social class and powerful capitalists. . Urban space is a commodity to be bought and sold.Urbanization: Conflict Conflict theory: heavily influenced new urban sociology Economic and political factors determine urban growth or decline.

Urbanization: Feminist Feminist scholars emphasize gender-related constraints. . Poor women and minorities have the least access to decent housing. Safe public transportation and other public areas are limited. Developers ignored women’s changing roles.

Urbanization: Symbolic Interactionists Symbolic interactionists are interested in the impact of urban life on its residents. Recent studies find satisfying lives for urbanites. . Urbanism is a way of life characterized by tolerance of different lifestyles but superficial interaction and social isolation.

Urbanization—Application Identify the theoretical perspective: People create suburbs to enhance their quality of life. Urbanites are more socially isolated than those in rural areas. . Financial institutions determine the shape of cities.

Environmental Issues .

Environmental Issues Ecosystem: involves a physical environment and all forms of life living in relation to one another Environmental problems threaten our ecosystem. .

.Environmental Issues Access to clean water: More than 1 billion people do not have clean water. Water-related diseases cause 50% of illnesses and deaths. Over 3 million children die every year because of diarrheal diseases.

factories.Environmental Issues Threats to water supply: Pollution:   Toxins from cities. . and farms The Clean Water Act (1972) and Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) are often violated with little punishment.

Environmental Issues Threats to water supply: Privatization: transferring assets or operations of public water systems into private hands Bottled water depletes local water sources and creates plastic water garbage. .

corruption. Agricultural waste includes production of water-hungry crops in arid areas. and bureaucratic bungling. .Environmental Issues Threats to the water supply: Mismanagement    Most water-related problems are due to human mismanagement. Many water and sewage pipes are old and deteriorating.

Environmental Issues The most common sources of air pollution are: Fossil fuels Manufacturing Winds blowing contaminants to other areas Government policies including lack of enforcement of pollution law .

Environmental Issues Global warming: increased temperature of the earth’s atmosphere The greenhouse effect: heating of the earth’s temperature due to atmospheric gases .

Environmental Issues Climate change: change of overall temperatures and water conditions over time Increases in ocean acidity Loss of livelihoods Coastal erosion and loss of homes Floods and droughts .

Environmental Issues Sustainable development: economic activities that meet the needs of the present without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations .

2. 3.Chapter Review 1. 5. 4. Describe the dynamics of population. What are the concerns regarding changing population? Describe the urbanization trends. What are the environmental issues facing the world? . Distinguish among the sociological explanations of urbanization.