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Sunday 12 July 2015

New topic: Variation

Inheritance
LO:

To explain how genetic information is passed on to offspring

Starter:
Starter: Draw
Draw and
and label
label aa
typical
typical animal
animal cell
cell (gold:
(gold: describe
describe the
the role
role of
of
each
each part
part of
of the
the cell)
cell)
Words
Words to
to use:
use: nucleus,
nucleus, cytoplasm
cytoplasm ,cell
,cell membrane
membrane

Context:

Genetic Variation

words: gene, allele, chromosome, nucleus


Success Criteria:

Identify where the chromosome are found in a cell (C)


State that genetic information is present in the
gametes from each parent (B)
Describe the relationship between chromosomes and
genes (B)
State the each gene affects a different
characteristic (A)
Recognise that genes are found in pairs on paired
chromosomes (A*)

Home Learning:
Due:

Can you remember what our cells looks


like? Draw and label a typical animal cell.
You have 3 minutes to complete this.

A typical animal cell

Can you remember what our cells looks


like? Draw and label a typical animal cell.
You have 3 minutes to complete this.

Cell
membrane

Nucleus
Cytoplasm

What makes us
different?
All living things are made up of cells.
We have many types of cells in our
body and each type may have a
different function.
Our cells contain information that
decides what we look like.

Whats inside the nucleus?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=aYlvssudA_0

cells

nucleus
cells

nucleus
cells

chromosomes

nucleus
cells

chromosomes

genes

nucleus
cells

chromosomes

genes
DNA

Genes

A gene is a length of DNA which


codes for a specific characteristic
Different genes control the
development of different
characteristics. e.g. you have genes
which tell you how to make eyes and
skin and hair and how to grow and
digest your food.

Where is this information


stored?
Section of a chromosome:

Genes for
blood group:

Genes for eye


colour
Genes for
hair colour

Different species have different


numbers of chromosomes.
Humans have 46 (23 pairs) in
every cell.

GENES ARE UNITS OF INFORMATION

GENES ARE INSTRUCTIONS FOR


MAKING PROTEINS. Proteins can be

GENES ARE INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING


PROTEINS. They can be
1. STRUCTURAL
E.g. build muscles
Or hair

GENES ARE INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING


PROTEINS. They can be
1. STRUCTURAL
E.g. build muscles
Or hair

2. ENZYMES
E.g. Insulin for diabetics

CHARACTERISTIC = GENES + ENVIRONMENT

CHARACTERISTIC = GENES + ENVIRONMENT

2. Every cell has a ________, which


contains ___________
3. ___________
carry the

1. The human body is

information

made up of about

from parents

100 trillion

to offspring

_________

Complete the gaps


using words from the
list. Cross out each
word as you use it:
Chromosomes,
Structural, genes,
nucleus, enzymes, cells,
chromosomes, DNA

4. Genes are the


instructions for making
proteins. The proteins
can be ___________ or
__________

DNA
5. ________ are made of long
chains of the chemical,
_________

Mini Quiz 1
1. Where are the instructions for how an
organism develops found?
2. What are genes?
3. What are the two categories of
proteins that can be produced?
4. What is DNA?
5. Name 2 things that most
characteristics are caused by

KS4 starter

Victoria Beckham
is going to have
another baby.
She thinks it is
highly unlikely it
will be a girl (she
already has three
boys)

What do you think?

KS4 Activity

You get one


chromosome
in each pair
from your
Mum...

and one
from your
Dad.

In the nucleus of most human cells are chromosomes.


They are long strings of a substance called DNA.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 altogether.
Where does each member of the pair come from?

KS4 Activity

This pair of chromosomes is called the sex


chromosomes.
It is different in men and women.

Men have XY
Women have XX

Snapshot Science, 2010

KS4 Activity

23

23

sperm

egg

46

fertilised
egg
(zygote)

The chromosomes form pairs when the sperm and egg


(sex cells) fuse during fertilisation.
Sex cells only have 23 chromosomes. Why?
Snapshot Science, 2010

KS4 Activity

cell in
testis

XY
X
Sperm
..%
50 are X
..%
50 are Y

XX
Y

cell in
ovary

Egg
100
..% are X

Sex cells are produced in the testes and ovaries.


When they are formed the chromosome pairs split up.
This includes the sex chromosomes.

Predict what will happen in the animation.

Snapshot Science, 2010

Learning Points
Identify where the chromosome are found
in a cell (C)
State that genetic information is present
in the gametes from each parent (B)
Describe the relationship between
chromosomes and genes (B)
State the each gene affects a different
characteristic (A)
Recognise that genes are found in pairs on
paired chromsomes (A*)