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An Introduction

## Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative

By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame
Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!

Quote
For the execution of the
voyage to the Indies, I did
not make use of intelligence,
mathematics or maps.
Christopher Columbus

Navisship
Agereto direct

Terrestrial coordinates
Chart projections

Concepts of position

## Terrestrial Coordinate System

Great Circles The largest circle that can
be drawn on the surface of the earth & all
like it.
Equator
Meridians

Equator

Meridian

Great Circle

## Terrestrial Coordinate System

Small Circles-all other circles
Parallels

Longitude/Latitude
Parallels of latitude are small circles
(with the exception of the equator)
Meridians of longitude are great circles

Desirable qualities of a
chart projection:
Maintain true shape of physical
features.
Maintain correct proportions of
features relative to one another.
True scale, permitting accurate
measurement of distance.
Rhumb lines plot as straight lines.
Great circles plot as straight lines.
No chart has all of these!

## Mercator vs. Gnomonic

Mercator Projection

Gnomonic Projection

Lambert Conformal
Projection (Sectional Chart)

Sectional Charts

## V-12 from HAR to JST departs HAR

westbound on a heading of 281, and
departs JST eastbound on a heading
of 096.

A circle has 360 degrees
A degree has 60 minutes
1 of latitude is the same distance
anywhere on the earth.
How many miles is one minute of
latitude?
Ans. 1 min lat. = 1 nm = 2000 yds.

## Where are we?

At the ROTC Building
-point
-LOP
mile from Golden Dome -LOP(circle)
Near Meijer
Ambiguous(which one?)
Imprecise(how far?)

## We will be there in 5 minutes

Answer to: when will we arrive there?

## Line of Position (LOP)

A line that defines our position in 1-D
Not necessarily straight
Arc, circle, hyperbola, intersection of
spheres

## Need a second line to define a fix in 2-D

Need a third to be sure

Measurement
Point
Bearing
Range
2 bearings
2 ranges
Bearing & range

Results
Fix
LOP
LOP (arc)
Fix
Fix
Fix

Aviation Example
Over SBN
GIJ 178R
GIJ 4.2 DME
GSH 313/GIJ 178
GSH 16.3/GIJ 4.2
GIJ 178/4.2

## How do we get there?

Plot a course
Whats a course?
path of intended motion

the direction the aircraft is pointed

## Make a good track

Whats a track?
the aircrafts path over the ground

Pilotage
VOR/DME/RNAV

Loran
GPS
Inertial

Celestial

Techniques:
Pilotage
Sectional chart

(DEDuced reckoning)
Compass & watch

Nomenclature
True & magnetic courses are given
in 3 digits, e.g. 090
Relative bearings are given in
degrees or clock position, e.g. 10
left of the nose, or 11 oclock

DEN
1300 DR

N
W

PHX

1100 DR

0
07

0900 DR
0800 Fix

1200 DR

1000 DR

Pilotage
VOR/DME/RNAV

Loran
GPS
Inertial

Celestial

## 1946 Stinson Voyager

Direction Finder, is
aircraft

The NDB, or
Beacon, is the
transmitting antenna
on the ground

NDB
The NDB is a ground-based radio
transmitter that emits a signal in every
direction
Benefits
Economic
Easy to maintain
Not line of sight

Errors
Susceptible to interference (T-Storms)
Bounces around coastlines

NDB
Operates on 190-535kHz
Range is 190-1750kHz

Types
HH 2000+ watts; 75nm range
H 50-1999 watts; 50nm range
MH less than 50 watts; 25nm range
Compass Locator less than 25 watts;
15 nm range

from the aircraft TO the station
Needle ALWAYS points to the station

## Indicates relative bearing

Bearing, measured clockwise, from the
nose of the aircraft TO the station
Card only indicates angle has nothing
to do with direction aircraft is pointed

Using relative bearing and magnetic
found
Actual heading to fly to the station
MB = MH + RB

## Homing the NDB

Homing
Flying the aircraft on any heading
required to keep the needle pointed
Works great without wind
Takes longer and not direct with wind

## Tracking the NDB

Tracking flying on a heading that
maintains a constant, desired track
to/from a station

## Find heading/course that takes you to the

station
Once off by 10, double the deflection and turn
towards station (head of the needle)
Once deflection equals correction, you are
back on course
Turn 10 towards needle
Repeat as necessary and become more
precise with correction

## Intercepting the NDB

Parallel course
Note deflection
Double it
Turn towards needle
Once deflection equals correction,
you are on course
Correct for wind (tracking)
NOTE: very similar to tracking

Fixed Card
Always shows 0 at the top

Moveable Card
Can show magnetic heading at top