How movement is brought about in a limb

Azneezal Ar-Rashid Smk Sri Aman 95007 Sri Aman, Sarawak February 2010

• A muscle is attached to at least two bones across joints through tendons • Tendons :
– Strong – Tough – Inelastic

• Antagonistic pairs
– One muscle contracts – One muscle relaxes

• Example :
– Bending & straightening the arm

• Arm
– Front : biceps
• When biceps contracts, triceps relaxes
– Forearm moves upwards

– Back : triceps

The structure of muscle

• Muscle
– Consists of :
• Muscle fibres • Blood vessels • Nerves

• Muscle fibres
– Single & long cylindrical cell – Many nuclei – Made up of myofibrils
• Two types of protein filaments :
– Actin – Myosin – Note : interaction between actin & myosin causes muscle contraction

• Has nerve ending
– Voluntary actions
• Signal from the brain

• Has mitochondria
– Energy : ATP for muscle contractions