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THE RISE OF HIP-HOP

WHAT IS HIP HOP?

a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies
rapping

Hip-hop is a culture, a lifestyle with its own language, style of dress, music and mind set
that is continuously evolving.

FOUR KEY STYLISTIC ELEMENTS
MCing

DJing

Breaking
Graffiti

THE ORIGINS

1970s - block parties in Bronx (NYC)

Isolation of the percussion breaks of popular songs

DJ KOOL HERC

one of the most popular DJs in early 70s New York

switched from using reggae records to funk, rock and disco

began extending percussive breaks using an audio mixer and two records

The first hip hop record is widely regarded to be The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight",
from 1979

1980S

intense diversification in hip hop

highly metaphoric lyrics rapping over complex, multi-layered beats

Grandmaster Flash

NEW SCHOOL

the second wave

influenced by rock music

shorter songs so they could gain more radio play

the Beastie Boys' 1986 album ”Licensed to ill” was the first rap album to hit #1 on the
Billboard charts

GOLDEN AGE

between the mid 1980s and the early 1990s

characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence

a time "when it seemed that every new single reinvented the genre" (Rolling Stone)

Public Enemy

Eric B. & Rakim

GANGSTA RAP

reflects urban crime and the violent lifestyles of
inner-city youths

popularized by Ice-T and N.W.A.

more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking
lyrics

incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the
word "nigger"
Ice-T

• N.W.A's ”Straight Outta Compton”
• first blockbuster gangsta rap album
• established West Coast hip hop as a vital
genre
• establish LA as a legitimate rival to hip hop's
long-time capital, NYC
• first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics
("Fuck Tha Police”)

N.W.A_-_Fuck_Tha_Police (1).ogg

1990S

MC Hammer hit mainstream success with ”Please Hammer,
Don't Hurt 'Em.”

The album raised rap music to a new level of popularity

It was the first hip-hop album certified diamond by the RIAA

Hip hop became the best selling music
genre by the mid 1990s

By the late 1990s hip hop was artistically
dominated by the Wu-Tang Clan

hip hop became an integral part of popular
music, and many American pop songs had
hip hop components.

WEST COAST HIP HOP

Dr. Dre (a former member of N.W.A.) released ”The
Chronic” in 1992

The album took West Coast rap in a new direction
influenced by funk artists and easy funk beats with
slowly drawled lyrics (G-funk)

G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years

• Death Row Records
• Los Angeles-based label
• rivalry with New York City’s Bad Boy
Records
• Dr. Dre
• Snoop Dog
• Tupac Shakur

EAST COAST HIP HOP

Noted for its emphasis on lyrical dexterity

In the early-1990s, the Wu-Tang Clan
revitalized the New York hip hop scene

The productions of RZA, particularly for WuTang Clan, became influential due to the
combination of:
• somewhat detached
instrumental loops
• highly compressed and
processed drums
• gangsta lyrical content

The success of artists such as Nas and Notorious B.I.G. during 1994-95 cemented the
status of the East Coast

Nas's debut album ”Illmatic” has been noted as a creative high point of the East Coast hip
hop scene

Nas

HIP-HOP FEUD

a rivalry that is manifested by each slandering and confronting the other in a number of
ways

The most notable one was between Tupac and Notorius BIG

2000S

The popularity of hip hop music continued

Dr. Dre produced “The Marshall Mathers” LP by Eminem
• It sold over ten million copies in the United States
• the fastest selling album of all time

EMINEM

the best selling artist of the 2000s

ten number one albums on the Billboard 200

sold 86 million records worldwide

the only rapper to have two diamond-certified albums

received 13 Grammy Awards

Hip hop influences also found their way into mainstream pop during the mid 2000s

No.1 hit – Nelly featuring Kelly Rowland “Dilemma”

in the later 2000s that alternative hip hop finally secured a place within the mainstream

the crossover success of artists such as OutKast, Kanye West, and Gnarls Barkley

Gnarls Barkley
(Danger Mouse
& Cee Lo

OUTKAST

Album “Speakerboxxx/The Love Below”
• received high acclaim from music critics
• mixed numerous musical genres –rock, R&B,
punk, jazz, indie, country, pop and gospel
• sold more than 11 million units (certified
diamond)
• won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year

KANYE WEST

achieved recognition for his work on Jay-Z's album “The Blueprint”

His style of production originally used pitched-up vocal samples from soul songs
incorporated with his own drums and instruments

Later on broadened his musical palette and expressing influences encompassing '70s
R&B, baroque pop, trip hop, arena rock, folk, alternative, electronica, synth-pop, and
classical music

His five solo albums, all of which have gone platinum, have received numerous awards
and critical acclaim

won a total of 14 Grammy Awards

also runs his own record label GOOD Music, home to artists such as John Legend,
Common and Kid Cudi

Ranked one of the top MCs and producers “in the game”

EMA’s 2006

“George Bush doesn’t care about black
people..”(2005)

VMA’s 2009

JAY-Z

the cultural triumph of hip hop

went from performing artist to label
president, head of a clothing line, club
owner, and market consultant

-One of the most financially successful hip hop artists and entrepreneurs in the US
-recieved 13 Grammy Awards
-holds the record for most number one albums by a solo artist on the Billboard 200 (11)

"a master of the flow”

fast rhythms and vocal delivery

known to write lyrics in his head

performance style described: “..he rarely breaks a sweat, and instead uses smoothness
and clever wordplay to keep the audience interested and entertained”

married to American R&B singer
Beyoncé Knowles

the most powerful couple in the
TIME magazine's list of 100 most
influential people

POLITICS

Black nationalism in the 1970s and early 1980s
• Prominent black nationalist artists include Tupac Shakur,
Public Enemy, N.W.A, Brand Nubian, Sister Souljah and Big
Daddy Kane

Jay-Z got actively involved in politics during the 2008 presidential campaign
as an early supporter for the candidacy of Illinois senator Barack Obama

Kanye’s open dissatisfaction with George W. Bush

CONSCIOUS HIP HOP

discusses social issues and conflicts

Themes include religion, aversion to violence,
culture, the economy, or simple depictions the
struggles of ordinary people

Audience largely underground

Few commercially successful artists such as:
• The Roots
• Lupe Fiasco
• Mos Def

GLOBALIZATION OF HIP HOP

The music and the art continue to embrace, its
transnational dimensions while staying true to the
local cultures

In developing world, it has come to represent the
empowerment of the disenfranchised and a slice
of the American dream

UK: Dizzee Rascal

Israel: Subliminal ( Zionist themes)

Germany: Bushido (Nazi)

France: Kery James (anti-authoritarian)

SALES

In the 1990’s, there were 3 rap albums that were certified diamond

In the 2000’s there were also 3 rap albums certified diamond, but also 3 rap albums that
were the top-selling albums of the year
• The Eminem Show (2002)
• Get Rich or Die Tryin’ (2003)
• Tha Carter III (2008)

In 2005 rap sales dropped 44%, and declined to 10% of all music sales

But despite the fall in record sales, hip hop artists are still topping the Billboard 200 chart

In the first half of 2009 alone artists such as Eminem, Rick Ross, The Black Eyed Peas,
and Fabolous all had albums that reached the #1 position

In 2010, Eminem's „Recovery“ was the 2nd best selling album in the world, with 5.8
million units sold

„Love the way you lie“ featuring Rihanna was the 2nd best selling single in the world with
8.260 million units sold.

Drake

Nicki Minaj

Kid Cudi
Lil
Wayne

...WE GON’ RUN THIS TOWN...