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PREPARED BY

TO
Priyanka Gupta
Ahamad
Shreya Bhatnagar
Charge
Shampa Srivastava
Deptt.

SUBMITTED
Mr. Jameel
Seminar InEE

A smart grid delivers electricity from

suppliers to consumers using two-way
digital technology to control appliances
at consumers' homes to save energy,
reduce cost and increase reliability and
transparency.

Self healing
Empower and incorporate the consumer
Tolerant of attack
Provides power quality needed by 21 st

century consumers
Accommodates a wide variety of
generation options (like green energy)
Fully enables maturing electricity markets
Optimizes assets

 VARIABLE TARIFF-BASED LOAD
 variable price profile given to the customer day

ahead
 different price profile for each day
 automatic home management device coupled to
an energy meter
 ENERGY USAGE MONITORING AND FEEDBACK
 display of energy consumption
 comparisons to average consumption pattern
 suggestions on how to further lower consumption

 REAL-TIME PORTFOLIO IMBALANCE

REDUCTION
 Balance Responsible Party (BRP) which plan

or forecast the energy production and
consumption
 Imbalance cost for the BRPs on deviation
from the energy plan
 OFFERING RESERVE CAPACITY TO THE TSO
 Energy generated by consumers sold back to

the grid

 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONGESTION

MANAGEMENT
 loads shifted away from periods at which

congestion occurs
 usage data provided by the consumers proves
to be very helpful
 DISTRIBUTION GRID CELL ISLANDING IN CASE

OF HIGHER- SYSTEM INSTABILITY
 instable system operated separately
 transition to island mode automatic

 BLACK START SUPPORT FROM SMART HOUSES
 after black-out local grid is out of operation
 start-up quickly in island mode
 then reconnect with up-stream network

 INTEGRATION OF FORECASTING TECHNIQUES
 forecasting a necessary tool due to volatility of

production level of distributed generators
 lowest forecasting error means most efficient
operation

Independent processors in each component at

each sub-station and power plant
Sensors are connected to all other
components in the system
Own state and of all other components are
known and communicated

On addition of new devices to the system device
parameters are automatically updated
The new component also has a built-in processor

TYPICAL BLACK-OUT SEQUENCE
a sudden outage of major lines occurs
further outage due to overload leaves the
system imbalanced
frequency declines with large generation load
imbalance
generation is taken off-line
island blacks out
long time taken to restore power

• emergency imposed on the system
• frequency & load/generation imbalance is determined
and total outage is prevented

Distribution system needs many changes to
come in sync with requirements for the
implementation of smart grid
DESIRED OPTIMISATIONS
DEMAND OPTIMISATION
DELIVERY OPTIMIZATION
ASSET OPTIMIZATION
RENEWABLES OPTIMIZATION

Refers to monitoring, control &

communication functions
Important aspects of DA are in areas of
protection and switching
Helps in quickly reconfigure interconnected
network of feeders

Can detect fault current and voltages

Can help in self-healing of the grid

Can communicate with one another

DISTRIBUTED ASSET OPTIMIZATION MODEL
Developed to provide an engineering basis for

predicting hourly loading at any point
between the sub-station & customer
Calculates power flowing through each
transformer
Provides insights required to make better
planning and operating decisions

 DATA COLLECTION

DATA INCLUDES
 Customer information & billing data
 Customer hourly consumption data
 Distribution transformer characteristics
 Feeder characteristics
 Connectivity data for the distribution system

DATA VALIDATION
Total annual customer energy validated with

annual energy measured at the sub-station

ESTABLISH WEATHER SENSITIVITY
Data obtained is weather-sensitive
Tuned with the weather parameters to obtain

the actual data

Data obtained from users matched with Load-

Shape library
Customers assigned best matching hourly or
daily load-shape

CALIBRATION
To compensate for unaccounted energy

calibration process applied

Residential, Small Office & commercial

building sector responsible for over 50% of
total electricity consumption
Homes, offices and commercial buildings
treated as an interconnected network
instead of single units
Able to communicate, interact & negotiate
with both customers & energy devices in
local grid
Grid operated more efficiently as
consumption is better predicted

SMART HOME NETWORK

 MICROGENERATION
 Small homes can generate wind and solar power

which if in surplus amount can be sold back to the
distributor
 SMART METERS
 With their help user consumption can be measured,

monitored and controlled
 Smarter decisions made by consumers can be
communicated back to grid
 LOCAL STORAGE UNITS
 Enables smart homes to store energy for future use

Introduces a holistic concept & technology

for smart homes
Smart homes & buildings treated as
proactive consumers also known as
prosumers
Prosumers negotiate & collaborate as an
intelligent network

A communication technique to

automatically collect the meter readings &
other relevant data from meters
AMR has benefits beyond meter reading
It provides crucial data on an insight into
other areas of operation

For small commercial customers monthly

consumption read is sufficient
For large commercial and industrial
customers daily consumption read is
required
Remote monitoring devices attached to
meters store hourly consumption profile
Accurate bills provided to customers are
more satisfying than estimated bills

 RF COMMUNICATION
 Most widely accepted method of

communication between meter and data
collection
 A wake-up signal is sent by data collection
system to the RF devices
 Devices send back the latest meter read &
other information

 RADIO-EQUIPPED HAND-HELD COMPUTER
 DRIVE-BY OR MOBILE DATA COLLECTION
 FIXED NETWORK DATA COLLECTION

Meter reader carrying a hand-held computer

equipped with radio receiver walks-by homes,
without actually entering the premises
Manual error reduced

Radio transreciever installed in a utility

vehicle
Root information downloaded from the utility
billing system
Loaded into radio transreciever
Vehicle drives along the route and collects the
readings through RF communication

Fixed network installed over saturated areas

where advanced metering data,
reads, unscheduled reads required

variable

Used where daily reading or reading several

times a day is required

 INBOUND SYSTEMS
Modules call a central master data

collection computer at pre-scheduled time
Provides hourly consumption data
 OUTBOUND SYSTEMS
Master station calls the remote meter

module to collect data

Usage reporting device at each customer

site is called a SMART METER
Computerised replacement of electrical

meters
Contains a processor, non-volatile storage

& communication facilities
Can track usage as a function of time-ofday, disconnect a customer via a software
or send out alarms in case of problems
Interface directly with smart appliances to
control them

Necessary to support major applications &
systems such as demand response, wide area
measurement
& control, electricity storage & transportation.

TRUST
Necessary to know whether appropriate user

is accessing accurate data created by right
device at proper time
And the data hasn’t been modified

Data transfer now taking place through digital

medium like internet
Chances of data theft and modification very
high
Hackers can immediately manipulate their
energy costs or fabricate false readings

PRIVACY
Electricity use pattern could lead to disclosure

of when people are at home or work or
travelling
This could support criminal targeting of homes

Most effective solution for securing smart

grid based on PKI technologies

PKI TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
PKI standards
Smart Grid PKI tools
Device Attestation

PKI STANDARDS
Provide a mechanism for defining naming
convention and certificate policy
They don’t specify how these standards
should be used
They only provide a high-level framework for
digital certificate usage and for implementing
a PKI
PKI TOOLS
They tell how to work on the PKI standards
Ease the management of PKI components in
the Smart Grid application

DEVICE ATTESTATION
Device

attestation certificates are used
only to assert the device manufacturer,
model, serial no. and that the device has
not been tampered with

Renewable resources affect the reliability of

grid due to their volatility
Demand response and electric storage
provide economics of grid
Grid reliability can be improved by mitigating
peak demand and load variability

Reliability problem arises due to faults
occurring in the system
FUNCTIONS THAT RESOLVE THESE PROBLEMS
Fault diagnosis and alarm processing
function
Fault location function
Service restoration function

FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND ALARM PROCESSING
FUNCTION
Automatically triggered after occurrence of a
fault
Also detect missing remote control signal
Analysis of the fault presented to the operator
FAULT LOCATION FUNCTION
To find the location of faults
Quickly determine the faulty section of feeder
SERVICE RESTORATION FUNCTION
Restores the power to the non-faulted section
of the feeder