SP 400

Introduction & Basic Concepts

Today
Review syllabus  ANGEL tutorial  Introductions  Baseline Quiz  Lecture  Activities  Behavior change project preparation  SAFMEDS (flash cards)

Objectives:
Be familiar with the basic characteristics of science  Be able to identify and define the basic characteristics of applied behavior analysis  Know the difference between operant and respondent conditioning  Look over new terms and definitions that are introduced in this lecture

Introduction

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
 Discipline

devoted to the understanding and improvement of human behavior

Dimensions of ABA
      

Applied – the behavior in question is important to the subject and/or society. Behavioral – in need of improvement, measurable, and whose behavior is changed. Analytic – when the experimenter has demonstrated a functional relation Effective – improved to a practical degree Conceptually systematic – procedures are related to basic principles of behavior Technological – procedures are completely identified and described Generality – lasts over time, appears in other environments, or spreads to other behaviors

The science of behavior

Behaviorism – the philosophical and

theoretical foundations

Experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) –

basic research

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) –

practical application and analysis

Basic characteristics of science
    

Determinism – the universe is a lawful and orderly place Empiricism – the practice of objective observation Parsimony – the simplest explanation Scientific manipulation - research Philosophic doubt – continually questioning what is regarded as fact

The science of behavior
Seeks to discover laws or statements that describe functional behavior environment relationships Or Basic principles of behavior – a basic functional relationship between behavior and its controlling variables

Basically....
We can encourage appropriate behavior or discourage inappropriate behavior just by making changes in our environment

By understanding basic principles of behavior, you can produce better outcomes because you will be skilled at increasing and decreasing behaviors

The force is strong in each of you

Behavior principles you need to know

On the way your Jedi training is

Use the force and you will see

Jedi masters of behavior principles you will be

Behavior Analytic Jedi knights is what I see

A Brief History Lesson...

Pavlov (1903)
 Respondent

conditioning

Watson (1913)
 Stimulus-Response

psychology

Skinner (1938)
 Operant

conditioning

Some terms and definitions

Stimulus (S) – specific aspects of the environment that can be differentiated from one another Response (R) – a specific instance of a particular behavior

Respondent Behavior
Respondent behavior provides each organism with a set of built-in responses to specific stimuli; these are behaviors the individual organism would not have time to learn.  Respondent behavior is defined as behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli (SR)

Examples of respondent behavior
Pupil contraction  Changes in heart rate and respiration  Blinking  Knee-jerk

Respondent Conditioning

http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/beh sys/classcnd.html

Respondent Conditioning (cont)

http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/beh sys/classcnd.html

Respondent Conditioning (cont)

http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/beh sys/classcnd.html

Respondent Conditioning (cont)

www.awa.com/norton/ figures/fig0404.gif

In summary,
Respondent behavior is elicited by a stimulus  New stimuli acquire control over respondent behaviors through pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus  Respondents make up only a small percentage of behaviors of interest

Some more terms and definitions...
 

Antecedent (A) – what occur immediately before a behavior Behavior (B) - anything an organism does that can be counted Consequence (C) – what occurs immediately after a behavior

Operant Behavior
The effects or consequences of an operant behavior on the environment are responsible for determining the behavior’s future rate of occurrence  Operant behavior is learned behavior  Operant behavior is behavior evoked by the environment (S-RSR or A-BC)

Operant Behavior (cont)

Topography vs. Function
 Topography

– description or form  Function – determined by the effects on the environment or the consequence

Operant Conditioning
Contingency – an if-then relationship The three term contingency Antecedent -- Behavior  Consequence

Operant Conditioning (cont)

Antecedent - what occurs immediately before the behavior.

Operant Conditioning (cont)

Antecedent characteristics
 Looks

at the when, where, who, and what immediately before a behavior occurs.  Can influence behavior change when manipulated.

Operant Conditioning (cont)

Behavior - anything an organism does that can be counted

Operant Conditioning (cont)

Behavior Characteristics
 Measurable  Observable  If

a dead man can do it…it’s not a behavior!

Exercise 1
Is it a behavior?

Operant Conditioning (cont)
     

Behavior: __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

     

NOT a Behavior: ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

Operant Conditioning (cont)

Consequence - what occurs immediately after a behavior

Operant Conditioning (cont)

Consequence characteristics
 Immediate  Determines

whether or not the behavior is likely to reoccur in the future.

Operant Conditioning (cont)

Different Types of Consequences
 Reinforcement

- increases future probability of a behavior reoccurring - deceases future probability of a behavior reoccurring

 Punishment

In summary,
Operant behavior is evoked by the environment  The environment acquires control over operant behaviors through the three term contingency

In summary,

Operant conditioning results in the formation of a
 response

class – a set of behaviors related by their functional similarity

SP 400
Operant Reinforcement

Study Objectives
    

Discriminate between positive and negative reinforcement Describe the difference between unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers Identify the four functions of behavior Understand variables related to reinforcer effectiveness and guidelines for using reinforcement Describe strategies that can be used to identify potential reinforcers

The Three Term Contingency A–BC or D r S–RS

Reinforcement
A–BC or SD – R  Sr

Reinforcement (cont)

Results in an __________ in the future probability of a behavior reoccurring  Results in an increase in the future probability of a behavior reoccurring

Two types of reinforcement

Positive reinforcement and Negative reinforcement

Two types of reinforcement (cont)
Positive refers to the application or delivery of a stimulus contingent upon a response  Negative refers to the removal of a stimulus contingent upon a response

Positive = giving Negative = taking away

Two types of reinforcement

Because reinforcement always results in an increase in behavior, regardless of whether reinforcement is positive or negative - behavior always increases

Positive Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement – the presentation of a preferred stimulus that increases the probability of the behavior occurring again in the future.

Negative Reinforcement

Negative reinforcement – the removal of an aversive stimulus that increases the probability of the behavior occurring again in the future.

Negative Reinforcement

Is not punishment!
 It

does not mean “bad”  It does not decrease behavior

Ethical considerations
 Aversive

events can generate undesirable behavior

Complete the table

What are examples from your own life and your experience in schools of….
 Positive

R+  Negative R+  Positive punishment  Negative punishment

Primary Reinforcers
Primary or unconditioned reinforcers – increase the behavior that precedes them due to their biological importance  Examples

 Food  Water  Oxygen  Warmth

Secondary Reinforcers

Secondary or conditioned reinforcers – are stimuli that are initially neutral and have acquired reinforcing capabilities because of being paired with primary or unconditioned reinforcers

Secondary Reinforcers
  

Tangible reinforcers – objects or activities Activity-oriented reinforcers – events or privileges Social reinforcers – physical contact, proximity, or verbal statements Generalized reinforcers – a type of conditioned reinforcer that is not dependent upon a single kind of deprivation

Four Functions of Behavior

Attention – a behavior that is maintained by the attention of others

Attention may include a corrective statement, eye contact, body posture, facial expression, etc.

 

Tangible - A behavior that is maintained by the presentation of an object (are you getting something: shopping----get new cloths) Escape/Avoidance
 

Escape – terminates an existing stimulus Avoidance - when a response avoids, rather than terminates, a stimulus

Sensory - a behavior that is maintained by the internal stimulation produced by the behavior

Four Functions of Behavior

Attention =
 Positive

Reinforcement Reinforcement Reinforcement

Tangible =
 Positive

Escape/Avoidance =
 Negative

Sensory =
 Positive

Reinforcement

What’s the function?

Ken presents a worksheet. Barbie begins to talk about what she did last night. Ken asks Barbie more questions about her night. What is most likely to occur next time Ken presents a worksheet?
  

Barbie will start talking about what she did last night Type of consequence:
 Negative

reinforcement

Function:

Escape/avoidance

Sammy is playing by himself. Sammy begins to scream loudly. The teacher runs over and tells Sammy to stop screaming. Sammy stops. What is most likely to occur next time that Sammy is playing by himself?
  

Sammy will start screaming Type of consequence:
 Positive

reinforcement

Function:

Attention

Dr. McGraw goes to the Chicago School every day. She gets paychecks every 2 weeks. She receives money for her work. What is most likely to occur next time Dr. McGraw goes to work?
Dr. McGraw will receive a paycheck in 2 weeks.  Type of consequence: Positive reinforcement  Function: Tangible

Hank is alone without others in the room. Hank begins to turn lights on and off rapidly. He is receiving visual stimulation. What is most likely to occur next time Hank is alone? Hank will turn the lights on and off  Type of consequence:

 Positive

reinforcement

Function:

Sensory/automatic

You are sitting in class getting tired. You start to zone out. You take a break from thinking. What is most likely to happen next time you get tired in class? You will zone out.  Type of consequence: Negative reinforcement  Function: Escape/avoidance

Bert is hungry. Bert screams in the kitchen. Ernie starts offering food items. What is most likely to occur next time Bert is hungry? Bert will start screaming  Type of consequence:

 Positive

reinforcement

Function:

Tangible

Review: Response Class
A set of behaviors related by their functional similarity

Crying, yelling, and rolling around on the floor all lead to…. The teacher coming over and telling the student to stop.

Attention

Swearing at the teacher, hitting another student, or spitting at another student all lead to…. The teacher sending the student to the principal’s office.

Escape from work

Response Class

Think of a set of your behaviors. Describe to the person next to you how they look different, but you still receive the same consequence each time one of those behaviors is displayed.

SAFMEDS
Review the timeline  Today we will use 10 cards  The goal for today is 10 cards in 20 seconds  You will have time to practice before you check out

SAFMEDS
Let’s make the cards  Cut out each of the terms and definitions  Tape the term on one side  Tape the definition on the other side  To save time, we will just make the first 10 cards today in class  Make the rest at home

SAFMEDS
 

Practice flipping the cards Hold the cards in your left hand if you are right handed
 Pick

up the cards quickly with your right hand and flip

Hold the cards in your right hand if you are left handed
 Pick

up the cards quickly with your left hand and flip

Make sure it is comfortable for you

SAFMEDS
Now practice looking at the definitions and saying the terms  Look at the definition, say the term  If you don’t know, say “PASS”

Practice with the 10 cards multiple times  Shuffle the cards in between each time

SP 400
Selecting and defining problem behaviors

The Problem-Solving Method

Define the Problem
What is the problem?
(Screening and Diagnostic Assessments)

Problem Identification

 

Behavioral concern identified in observable, measurable terms Prioritize concerns Frequency, duration intensity Social comparisons

 

Establish baseline Identify student assets Input from multiple sources Expected levels of performance

Definitions
 

Target behavior is…
 The

behavior of concern

Operational definition
A

description of the specific, observable, and measurable characteristics of the target behavior

Behaviors Frequently Targeted for Intervention
Harmful behaviors  Stereotypic behaviors  Infrequent or absent desirable behaviors  Normal behaviors in inappropriate contexts

Six Components for Conducting Observations
1. 2. 3.

Define the target behavior Select a measurement strategy Determine current level of performance (baseline) Write a goal Chart and record data Develop a decision-making plan

4. 5. 6.

Prioritize Concerns
   

Danger Social Significance Most problematic Ease of behavior change Ease of generalization

 

 

Beginning of behavior chain General utility Acquisition vs. elimination Natural reinforcement Student choice

Problem Identification and Behavioral Observation
Operationalize  Validate  Establish baseline

What is an Operational Definition?
Identifying and defining a specific behavior so that it will be measured consistently from observer to observer.  An operational definition often includes active verbs describing specific behaviors that a person exhibits; it is objective and unambiguous.

1. Problem Definition
 “Even

the best intervention strategy is doomed if it is applied to an improperly defined target behavior”
(Reynolds, Gutkin, Elliott, & Witt, 1984, p. 186)

Observational Assessment: Step 1 – Define the Problem
  

Obtain global description of behavior (when happen, when does not) Describe settings or conditions where behavior seems to occur Develop (or select) an operational definition of behavior and setting variables
 Clear,

behavioral, observable description  Examples and non-examples

Check social validity of definitions

Common Referral Problems (global descriptions)
Lucy talks out all the time  Stella is always off task  Charlie is always disturbing others  Maggie’s lab projects are a mess

Example: Hand Raising
    

Generalizable? Alterable? Specific? Observable?

   

Measurable?

Yes, it has impact across settings Yes, it improves with practice Yes, it can be specified Yes, it can be seen Yes, it can be counted

Example: Self-Esteem

Generalizable? Alterable? Specific? Observable? Measurable?

   

Yes, it has impact across settings Possibly Possibly No, it cannot be seen If can’t be seen, it cannot be counted

Standard Format for Writing Behavioral Definition

Operational Definition: behavior defined so two observers could independently observe same behavior and get similar data (Target behavior) means that (student) (action verbs). Examples of (target behavior) include (1) ___, (2) ___, (3), ___ Non-examples of (target behavior) include (1) ___, (2) ___, (3), ___

Directly Observable Action Verbs

Observable:
 To

turn pages  To climb  To pick up  To catch  To use two hands  To go up the stairs

NOT Directly Observable Action Verbs

Not Directly Observable:
 To

participate  To learn  To discover  To know  To move smoothly  To understand

Example Using the Standard Format

(Aggression) means that (Rambo) (strikes another person inflicting pain or discomfort)

Examples:
  

Punching someone in the nose Throwing a rock at someone Kicking someone Patting someone on the back Giving a “high five” Shaking someone’s hand

Non-examples:
  

Another Example
 

(Academic engagement) means that (Gerald) (is working on assigned academic material) Examples
  

Looking at materials Making relevant responses (e.g. writing, computing, raising a hand) Asking for assistance in the instructed manner Working on a math assignment during science Talking to a peer about unrelated topic Combing hair

Non-Examples
  

One More Example

(Crying) means any (vocal noise made by (Samantha) that is loud enough to be heard outside the child’s room and that does not involve recognizable words) Examples
  

Heard in the hallway Heard in the basement Heard in the room next door Singing without words Soft cries that cannot be heard outside the room Talking that can be heard outside the room

Non-examples
  

Let’s Try One Together
Talking out means…  Examples  Non-examples

Introducing Katie…

Concern:
 Katie

is an elementary school student who is always the last one to line up, making the entire class wait for her

To do:
 Behavior:

to get in line  Develop an operational definition (follow the standard format)

Katie: “Getting in Line”

(Getting in line) means that (Katie) (walks over and stands behind the last person currently in line within 1 minute of teacher prompt)

Examples:
 

Lining up for lunch following the teacher’s direction Lining up for recess within the same time frame as peers

Nonexamples
   

Standing up more than 2 feet from last kid in line Standing up in line outside of time frame Cutting in line Ran to end of line

Katie: “Getting in Line”

Is “getting in line”
 Generalizable?  Alterable?  Specific?  Observable?  Measurable?

SP 400
Behavior change project preparation

Behavior Change Project Preparation
  

Think about the students or children you have access to. Consider possible problem behaviors that they may display Decide on a problem behavior

2. Systematic Observation: Selecting Measurement
Quantify behaviors  Clear definition of parameters of behavior  Allows for discrimination of target behaviors amongst multiple observers

2. Observational Assessment: Specify the Measurement

Identify critical dimensions of target behavior
 Frequency

-- rate or relative frequency  Intensity – rate ( how often, and how intense)  Duration -- total or mean duration (how long)  Latency -- mean delay ( how long does it take to the student after prompt).  Accuracy -- relative frequency or frequency

2. Measurement Strategy Decisions
a. b.

How will data be collected? What materials will be used to collect data? Where will data be collected? When will data be collected? Who will collect data?

c. d. e.

 

Frequency

Dimension: What About the Behavior is a Concern?

Does it happen too little or too often? Does the student perform the skill at the correct rate and level of accuracy? Does it take too long before the student performs the skill? Does the student demonstrate the appropriate level of intensity? Does the behavior look like it should? Does the student perform the skill accurately? Does the student perform the skill as long as needed?

Fluency

    

Latency

Intensity

Topography

Accuracy

Duration

Common Behavior Dimensions

Frequency: behavior happens too much or too little
 

# of talk outs # of bites of food

Duration: behavior is too long or too short
 

time to walk to class time to dress for recess percent correct on daily assignment time to answer when name is called time to take a bite of food after prompt

 

Accuracy: behavior doesn’t happen at all

Latency: behavior takes too long to begin after a prompt
 

Example of Behavior Dimensions

Target Behavior: Compliance to teacher requests/directions Operational Definition: Compliance to teacher requests/directions means following the direction with no more than two verbal prompts Dimension: Frequency

Example of Behavior Dimension

Target Behavior: Compliance to teacher requests/directions Operational Definition: Compliance to teacher requests/directions means completing all steps of a 2or 3-step direction with 100% accuracy Dimension: Accuracy

SP 400
Behavior change project preparation

Behavior change project preparation

Work on operationally defining the problem behavior.
 Is

it observable and measurable?

What dimension of FLITAD will you use to observe the problem behavior and why?
 Frequency  Latency  Intensity  Topography  Accuracy  Duration

Observational Assessment: Specify the Measurement

Time-based

Interval
 

Whole Partial

 

Duration Time sampling Frequency Duration

Event-based
 

Frequency/Event Recording
     

Number of target behaviors in specific timeframe Types: Frequency, Rate, Percent Use when frequency behaviors is moderate Rates of behavior More difficult with continuous behaviors Useful for short duration behaviors that have a discrete beginning and end.

Event Recording
 

Frequency count

Use when time or opportunities is constant

Percentage
length of time varies and behavior opportunities vary  to convert frequency data to percentage: #occurrences =% #opportunities

Rate  Use when time is not constant  To convert frequency to rate: #occurrences

time

Examples  Number of hand raises (per minute)  Number of sight words read correctly (per min.)  Number of tardies  % of assignments completed on time

=rate per minute

Duration Recording
Records length  Useful when length or changes in length of time for behavior is important  Must have discrete beginning and ending  Calculate total duration and average duration  Percent ratio of duration to observation length

Examples of Duration
 Tantrum

lasted 40 min. seat for 5 min.

 Out-of-seat/in  Time

to complete assignment was 21 min time was 12 min.

 Transition

Latency Recording
 

 

Elapsed time between prompt and initiation Discrete beginnings for signal and target behavior Does not calculate amount of time to complete requests Calculate average and total latency Interest in decreasing length of time from initiation

Examples of Latency Recording
 Prompt:

bell rings  Behavior: took 50 sec. for student to sit down
 Prompt:

screech blows  Behavior: took 4 min. all students in line at recess
 Prompt:

“Please, get out your math book and turn to page 14”  Behavior: took 3 min. for student to get book on top of desk and open to correct page

Time Sampling Interval Recording
       

Observation period divided into equal time intervals Record whether target behavior has occurred Effective when discrete beginning and end difficult Allows for approximations of behavior Allows for observing multiple behaviors, high rate behaviors, and steady rate behaviors Allows calculation of percent of intervals Used to record behaviors that are frequently present and when there is limited time for observation Most appropriate for behaviors that are ongoing, frequent (e.g., talking out, standing up on the bus, tantrum)

Whole Interval
    

Target behavior is occurring throughout entire interval Best used with continuous behaviors and/or short intervals Best to use with behaviors wanting to increase Tends to underestimate Useful as an estimate of behaviors in a specified time period. Don’t have a clear onset and offset. Used for behaviors that continue for longer periods of time and duration recording is not used.

Partial Interval
    

Target behavior marked if occurs at any time during an interval Best with low rates of behavior and/or inconsistent duration Tends to overestimate low rate behaviors Best for behaviors attempting to decrease Useful for recording behaviors in a specified time period. Don’t have a clear onset and offset. Results in an estimate. Used for high-frequency behaviors.

Momentary Time Sampling
Target behavior scored only if occurring at moment interval begins or ends  Provides least biased estimate of behavior in real time of the time sampling procedures

Activity
Problem behaviors:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Talking to peers Taking items from peers Scratching self with pencil Body odor Lack of work completion (sitting in seat with head down during work time)

Measurement Strategy Decisions

What Materials Will be Used to Collect Data?

Recording form, permanent products

Where Will Data be Collected?
 

Collect data in all relevant sites Where behavior is displayed and expected

When Will Data be Collected? Who Will Collect Data and How Often?
 

Reliability At least once per week

Katie: Measurement Strategy
    

How will the data be collected? What materials will be used to collect data? Where will data be collected? When will data be collected? Who will be responsible for collecting data?

   

Latency recording: length of time from teacher prompt (“Please line up.”), until Katie standing in line Latency recording data sheet, stop watch Classroom Transition from math to lunch Classroom teacher

Determine Current Level of Performance (Baseline)
    

The behavior before intervention begins Used for comparison to determine intervention effectiveness Need to have established pattern/trend prior to implementation of plan Multiple observations prior to intervention Compared to some standard
     

Research standards Peer comparison Local or national norms Teacher expectations Developmental expectations Professional judgment

Steps in Describing Current Level of Performance

Collect baseline data
 

Use same behavior defined earlier Make sure collect at least 3 points, consider stability Use the median

Summarize the data

 

Select a performance standard (yardstick) Evaluate baseline data
 

Is there a discrepancy? Is the discrepancy large enough to warrant an intervention?

Katie: Current Level of Performance
  

Collect baseline data Summarize baseline data Select a performance standard Evaluate the baseline data
Is there a discrepancy?  Is the discrepancy severe?

Use stopwatch to record total number of seconds

Results: 92 sec., 65 sec., 74 sec.

  

Median: 74 sec. Peer comparison: 20 sec Yes: 20 sec. vs. 74 sec.

Yes

SP 400
Behavior change project preparation

Behavior change project preparation
How will you observe the behavior?  What form will you use?  Make sure that your form matches the dimension of FLITAD that you are interested in.

Step 3: Determining baseline

Start thinking about when you can do the observations Use the observation tool that matches the dimension of the behavior you are observing Collect observation data 3 separate times, on 3 separate days Find the median of the data

Baseline
While you will be using a form, don’t be afraid to take notes in the margins  These notes will be very useful to you later, as you think about the patterns of the behavior and WHY it is happening

Baseline

Use the margin notes to think about patterns in behavior
 When

did it occur the most?  When was it most intense?  What seemed to elicit the behavior?  What happened right after the behavior?

Due date

Behavior change progress check 1 is due the day before we meet next time in class Friday Sept 26th at 9 am. 10 points. BCP comments/suggestions also due on Friday Sept 26th at 9 am. 10 points.

SAFMEDS
Practice again.  When you feel ready, you can stop practicing and check out with me  We will sit in a spot in the classroom and I will record your responses  We will track corrects and in-corrects

Online SAFMEDS
Do the next 3 checkouts online  Follow the SAFMEDS timeline and add 10 more cards  You now have 20 cards total  The time is 40 seconds

Online SAFMEDS
Before you test yourself 3 times and post the scores, practice!  Use the sheet at the back of the syllabus for practice ideas  Do it for brief periods of time every day

Online SAFMEDS
When you’re ready, test yourself 3 times  Post your scores on the checkout sheet in the drop box  Points are awarded according to trend

SAFMEDS next time
The next time we meet in class, the goal will be the same  20 cards correct in 40 seconds  You will have time to practice together before checking out

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