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Dental Arches And Quadrants

Teeth Are Arranged In The Oral Cavity In TwoArches Called The Dental Arches One Lower
. And One Upper
The Upper Arch Is Called The Maxilla
MaxillaThe Teeth In This Arch Are Called Upper
Upper Or
Or
.Maxillary
Maxillary Teeth
Teeth
The Lower Arch Is Called The Mandible
Mandible TheTeeth In This Arch Are Called Lower
Lower Or
..Mandibular Teeth
Each Dental Arch Has A Midline That DividesThe Arch Into Two Approximately Equal Right
.And Left Segments Named As Quadrant
There Are Four Quadrants In The Entire.Oral Cavity

Types and Forms of Teeth


Humans have two dentitions
1-The primary dentition: (deciduous )
. teeth. 10 maxillary and 10 mandibular 20
.teeth are present in each quadrant 5
.incisors 2
. canine 1
.and 2 molars
:The dental formula is
2
1
2
I --C ---M ---2
1
2

= 10

2-The permanent dentition:


(secondary, adult or
succedaneous )
32 teeth, 16 maxillary and
16 mandibular.
8 teeth in each quadrant are
Present.
2 incisors.
1 canine.
2 premolars.
and 3 molars.
The dental formula is :
2
1
2
3
I ---- C ---- PM --- M ---- = 16
2
1
2
3
The permanent molars are not
preceeded with deciduous teeth
so they may be termed as nonsuccedaneous teeth.
teeth

Deciduous dentition period starts from 6 months


till 6 years ( the eruption of the first permanent
tooth).
From 6 years to 12 years is a mixed dentition
period where the deciduous teeth replaced by
permanent teeth.

Grouping of Teeth
The teeth in the arch can be grouped as follow:
1- Anterior teeth (Incisors and canines).
2- Posterior teeth (premolars and molars).
Anterior
teeth
Posterior
teeth

Function Of Teeth
1- Mastication

2- Appearance

3- Speech

4- Growth of jaws

5- For animals

Numbering and coding systems of the teeth


1)The universal numbering system:.
The number is always preceded by the sign # to
.designate that the system is used for universal system
Permanent teeth (1 32)

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17

Deciduous teeth (1 20)


1

20 19 18 17 16

10

15 14 13 12 11

When we use numbers for


deciduous teeth we have to put
(d) beside the number e.g. # 5d

OR Deciduous teeth (A - T)
A

F
O

G
N

H
M

I
L K

The universal numbering system

2) Palmer Notation System:


It represents the four quadrants of the dentition as if you
. are facing the patient

Upper right

Upper left

Lower right

Lower left

The permanent teeth are numbered from 1-8 on each side


from the midline.
Upper right
Upper left
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8

7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Lower right

8
8

7
7

6 54

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8

Lower left

6 5 4

2
3

1
2

1
1

2
2

7
6
3 45
4 567
3

8
8

The deciduous teeth are lettered from A-E on


each side from the midline.
Upper right
Upper left
E D C B A A B C D E
E D C B A A B C D E
Lower right
Lower left

B A
C
D
E
E D C B A

Palmer Notation System

The Federation Dentaire international (FDI)- 3


(Two digit system)
The teeth are designed by using binomial systems:
a. The first number of the code is located at the left
side and indicates the quadrant.
In the permanent dentition.
U.R.

U.L.

L.R.

L.L.

In the deciduous dentition.


U.R

6 U.L.

L.R.

7 L.L.

b- The second number is located at the right


side and indicates the number of the tooth in
the quadrant according to Palmers.
The two numbers should be pronounced
separately.
Permanent teeth
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11
28
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41

21 22 23 24 25 26 27
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Deciduous teeth
55 54 53 52 51

61 62 63 64 65

85 84 83 82 81

71 72 73 74 75