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# Do now!

## Can you finish the questions

you started last lesson?

## Last lesson - Electromagnetic

induction
If a magnet is
moved inside a
coil an electric
current is
induced
(produced)

Electromagnetic induction
A electric current is induced because the
magnetic field around the coil is changing.

## Can you stick this in please?

Generator/dynamo
A generator works
by rotating a coil in
a magnetic field (or
rotating a magnet in
a coil). A slip-ring
commutator
produces
alternating current
(a.c.)

Stand up!

cell

energy

electron

lamp

## Coulomb of charge (electrons)

Think of it as a bag of electrons (containing
6000000000000000000 electrons!)

Current

Im counting
how many
coulombs of
electrons go
past me every
second

The number of
Coulombs flowing
A
past a point in the
circuit every second.

## 1 Amp = 1 coulomb per second

In a series circuit
Current is the same at any point in the
circuit
2.5 A

2.5 A

2.5 A

2.5 A

In a parallel circuit
The current splits (total current stays the
same)
2.5 A
2.5 A

1.25 A

1.25 A

Voltage(emf)

Im checking the
difference in
energy (per
coulomb) between
the 2 red arrows

## 1 Volt = 1 Joule per coulomb

Voltage (p.d.)

Im checking the
difference in
energy (per
coulomb) before
and after the lamp

## 1 Volt = 1 Joule per coulomb

In a series circuit
The sum of the voltages across the lamps
equals the voltage across the cells

9V

3V

3V

3V

In a parallel circuit
In a simple parallel circuit, voltage across
each lamp equals the voltage across the
cells
5V

5V

5V

Resistance
Measures how difficult it is for current to
flow. Measured in Ohms ()

Resistance = voltage/current

R = V/I

Ohms Law
V = IR

V
I

## Can you copy

Power
The amount of energy changed/transformed by
a device per second, measured in Watts (Joules
per second)

P = VI

## Todays lesson - Transformers

Can you gather around Mr
Porter?

Transformers
A transformer consists of 3 main parts

Transformers
A changing current in the primary coil
produces a changing magnetic field in the
core. This changing magnetic field induces
a changing current in the secondary coil.

Changing voltages
The ratio of the number of turns on the
coils equals the ratio of the voltages
# of turns = Np

# of turns = Ns

Vp/Vs = Np/Ns

Changing voltages
A transformer where the voltage rises is
called a step-up transformer

Changing voltages
A transformer where the voltage falls is
called a step-down transformer

## No energy for nothing

However, no new energy is made

## No energy for nothing

Power in = power out

VpIp = VsIs

a.c. only
Because transformers rely on induction
(changing fields), they only work with
alternating current (a.c.)

## Why do we need transformers?

Current flowing through wires causes
them to get hot and energy is lost.

## Why do we need transformers?

Keeping the current
low means
electricity can be
transported long
distances without
losing too much
energy.

## Why do we need transformers?

However, in order to send a large quantity
of energy, high voltages are needed.

Transmission of Electricity
Step-up

Step-down

## Lets try some questions!

Page 221 Question 3
Page 223 Questions 2 & 3
Page 225 Questions 3, 6 & 7
Mr Porter wants you to finish
these for homework PLUS the
questions he is now giving
you. Due Tuesday 20th Oct.