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Lesson 2 Transformers

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You are on page 1of 35

you started last lesson?

induction

If a magnet is

moved inside a

coil an electric

current is

induced

(produced)

COPY this please!

Electromagnetic induction

A electric current is induced because the

magnetic field around the coil is changing.

Generator/dynamo

A generator works

by rotating a coil in

a magnetic field (or

rotating a magnet in

a coil). A slip-ring

commutator

produces

alternating current

(a.c.)

Stand up!

cell

energy

electron

lamp

Think of it as a bag of electrons (containing

6000000000000000000 electrons!)

Current

Im counting

how many

coulombs of

electrons go

past me every

second

The number of

Coulombs flowing

A

past a point in the

circuit every second.

In a series circuit

Current is the same at any point in the

circuit

2.5 A

2.5 A

2.5 A

2.5 A

In a parallel circuit

The current splits (total current stays the

same)

2.5 A

2.5 A

1.25 A

1.25 A

Voltage(emf)

Im checking the

difference in

energy (per

coulomb) between

the 2 red arrows

Voltage (p.d.)

Im checking the

difference in

energy (per

coulomb) before

and after the lamp

In a series circuit

The sum of the voltages across the lamps

equals the voltage across the cells

9V

3V

3V

3V

In a parallel circuit

In a simple parallel circuit, voltage across

each lamp equals the voltage across the

cells

5V

5V

5V

Resistance

Measures how difficult it is for current to

flow. Measured in Ohms ()

Resistance = voltage/current

R = V/I

Ohms Law

V = IR

V

I

this please?

Power

The amount of energy changed/transformed by

a device per second, measured in Watts (Joules

per second)

P = VI

Can you gather around Mr

Porter?

Transformers

A transformer consists of 3 main parts

Transformers

A changing current in the primary coil

produces a changing magnetic field in the

core. This changing magnetic field induces

a changing current in the secondary coil.

Changing voltages

The ratio of the number of turns on the

coils equals the ratio of the voltages

# of turns = Np

# of turns = Ns

Vp/Vs = Np/Ns

Changing voltages

A transformer where the voltage rises is

called a step-up transformer

Changing voltages

A transformer where the voltage falls is

called a step-down transformer

However, no new energy is made

Power in = power out

VpIp = VsIs

a.c. only

Because transformers rely on induction

(changing fields), they only work with

alternating current (a.c.)

Current flowing through wires causes

them to get hot and energy is lost.

Keeping the current

low means

electricity can be

transported long

distances without

losing too much

energy.

However, in order to send a large quantity

of energy, high voltages are needed.

Transmission of Electricity

Step-up

Step-down

Page 221 Question 3

Page 223 Questions 2 & 3

Page 225 Questions 3, 6 & 7

Mr Porter wants you to finish

these for homework PLUS the

questions he is now giving

you. Due Tuesday 20th Oct.

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