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COMPONENTS OF

HYDROPOWER
PROJECTS
&
DESIGNS

COMPONENTS OF
HYDRO POWER PROJECT
CIVIL

HYDRO
MECHANICAL

ELECTRICAL &
MECHANICAL

CIVIL COMPONENTS

ESSENTIAL

NON-ESSENTIAL

ESSENTIAL CIVIL COMPONENTS

DIVERSION STRUCTURES
WATER CONDUCTOR SYSTEM
POWERHOUSE
TAILRACE SYSTEM

DIVERSION STRUCTURES
DAM
Concrete
Rock fill
Earthen
Arch
Buttress
CFRD(Concrete Faced Rock fill Dam)
RCC Dam(Roller Compacted Concrete
Dam)

DIVERSION STRUCTURES
SPILLWAY

Ogee
Chute
Side Channel
Morning glory
Tunnel
Under sluices

DIVERSION STRUCTURES
ENERGY DISSIPATION ARRANGEMENTS

Stilling Basins
Ski-jump buckets ( with or without plunge pools)
Roller buckets
TEMEPORARY DIVERSION STRUCTURES
Diversion Channels
Diversion tunnels
Coffer Dams

DIVERSION STRUCTURES

BARRAGES
WEIRS

Broad crested weir


Trench weir

WATER CONDUCTOR SYSTEM

INTAKE
HEAD REGULATORS
DESILTING BASIN ( In open system)
DESILTING CHAMBERS(In underground
system)

POWER CHANNEL

WATER CONDUCTOR SYSTEM


HEAD RACE TUNNEL
Cut & Cover Sections
Adits
FOREBAY
SURGE TANK
SURGE SHAFT
SURPLUS ESCAPE

WATER CONDUCTOR SYSTEM


CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS
Aqueducts
Siphon Aqueducts
Super Passages
Level Crossings
PENSTOCKS ( In open system)
PRESSURE SHAFTS ( In under ground system)

POWERHOUSE

SURFACE
UNDERGROUND
SEMI-UNDERGROUND
SHAFT

OVERALL DIMENSIONS OF POWERHOUSE

L = Ls + K + X + N x Unit spacing
Where
Ls

length of service bay

space required for crane to


handle the last unit

wall thickness

number of units.

TAIL RACE SYSTEM


TAIL RACE CHANNEL
TAIL RACE TUNNEL
OUT FALL STRUCTURE

NON-ESSENTIAL CIVIL
STRUCTURES
LOG BOOMS
LOG CHUTES
FISH LADDER/PASS

Infrastructure works

HYDROMECHANICAL COMPONENTS
GATES
Radial/Sector
Vertical Lift
Drum type
Stop log
Bulkhead
VALVES
Butterfly
Spherical
PENSTOCKS

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL
COMPONENTS

Turbine,scroll case & draft tube


Generator (shaft,stator &rotor)
Electrically operated traveling (EOT) crane
Main inlet valve (MIV)
Lighting
Heating, ventilation & air conditioning (HVAC)
Oil handling unit (OHU)

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL
COMPONENTS

Cables
Controls & monitoring
Station service transformer (SST)
Generator step-up transformer (GSU)
Unit auxiliary transformer(UAT)
Bus bar
Fire fighting
Dewatering system

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL
COMPONENTS

Cooling water system


Drainage system
Battery system
Lifts
DG set
Communications
Public address system

SWITCHYARD/G.I.S

Lightening Arrestors (LA)


Circuit Breakers (CB)
Current Transformers (CT)
Isolators
Gantries
Cable Ducts

SWITCHYARD/G.I.S

Bus Ducts
Potential Transformers (PT)
Shunt Reactors
Power Line Communication Carriers (PLCC)
Wave Traps (WT)

CANAL FALL

IRIGATION CANAL

INTAKE

TAIL RACE
CHANNEL
POWER HOUSE
CANAL FALL POWER HOUSE
FIGURE-1

DIVERSION STUCTURE

POWER INTAKE

R
E
V
I
R

POWER CHANNEL
FALL

FOREBAY

PENSTOCK
POWER HOUSE
TAIL RACE
POOL

POWER CHANNEL DEVELOPMENT

FIGURE-2

DIVERSION STUCTURE

POWER INTAKE

R
E
V
I
R

HEAD RACE
TUNNEL
FALL
SURGE SHAFT

POWER HOUSE
TAIL RACE
POOL

POWER TUNNEL DEVELOPMENT

FIGURE-3

SPILLWAY

R
RIVE

RESERVOIR

DAM TOP ROAD

POWER
HOUSE
TAIL RACE
CHANNEL
DAM TOE DEVELOPMENT
FIGURE-4

ACCESS SHAFT
DAM

RIVER

SURGE CHAMBER
TAIL RACE TUNNEL
UNDERGROUND MACHINE HALL

UPSTREAM STATION ARRANGEMENT


(SWEDISH SYSTEM)

FIGURE-5

SURGE TANK
DAM

ACCESS
GALLERY

PRESSURE TUNNEL
PRESSURE SHAFT
VALVE GALLERY

ACCESS
TUNNEL

UNDERGROUND
MACHINE HALL
TAILRACE TUNNEL

DOWNSTREAM STATION ARRANGEMENT


(SWISS TYPE)

FIGURE-6

SURGE TANK

SURGE TANK
SURGE CHAMBER

UNDERGROUND MACHINE HALL

TAIL RACE TUNNEL

INTERMEDIATE LOCATION OF STATION


(ITALIAN ARRANGEMENT)

FIGURE-7

INTAKE
AIR CUSHION
CHAMBER

POWER HOUSE
CAVERN

DIAGONAL PRESSURE
TUNNEL (Usually unlined)

ACCESS

STEEL PENSTOCK
DIAGONAL TUNNEL ALIGNMENT WITH
AIR-CUSHION SURGE TANK
(NORWEGIAN SOLUTION)

FIGURE-8

SURGE TANK
UNSTEADY UPSURGE
HYDROSTATIC LEVEL
STEADY STATE

RESERVOIR

PENSTOCK
PRESSURE TUNNEL

SURGE TANK SYSTEM


FIGURE-1

SURGE TANK
GATE GROOVE

MAX SURGE LEVEL

STEADY STATE LEVEL


RESERVOIR
MIN SURGE LEVEL

INTAKE

MAIN INLET
VALVE

PRESSURE TUNNEL

TAILRACE
PRESSURE SHAFT
TURBINE

EXCAVATED SURGE TANK

FIGURE-9

RESERVOIR

DAM
LOW

INTAKE

SURGE TANK
G RA

TURBINE

DIEN
T

PEN
STO
CK

HIGH GRADIENT
PENSTOCK

TAILRACE
VALVE

FREE STANDING SURGE TANK

FIGURE-10

UPSTREAM SURGE SHAFT

RESER-

HYDROSTATIC LEVEL
STEADY STATE LEVEL

VOIR

DOWNSTREAM
SURGE SHAFT

PRESSURE SHAFT

AIR VENT

LOW PRESSURE
CONDUIT
TAILRACE TUNNEL
UNDERGROUND POWER HOUSE

U/S AND D/S SURGE TANK SYSTEM


FIGURE-11

DESIGNS ASPECTS
- DAMS
- SURGE TANK
- POWER HOUSE
- SELECTION OF TURBINE

DAMS
Classification of Dams

ACCORDING TO USE
1. Storage Dam e.g. Gravity Dams, Rockfill Dam,
Earth
Dam, Arch Dam, Buttress Dam etc.
2. Diversion Dam e.g. Weir, Barrage
3. Detention Dam e.g. Dike, Water spreading Dam, Debris Dam
ACCORDING TO HYDRAULIC DESIGN
1. Overflow Dams e.g. Spillway
2. Non-overflow Dams e.g. Gravity Dam, Rockfill

Dam, Earth Dam, Arch Dam, Buttress Dam etc.

Selection of Dam Type

TOPOGRAPHY
FOUNDATION
SITE FOR SPILLWAY
AVAILABILITY OF MATERIAL
RESERVOIR & CATCHMENT AREA
ADEQUATE STORAGE CAPACITY
AREA OF SUMERGENCE
WATER TIGHTNESS OF RESERVOIR
SEDIMENTATION
DEEP RESERVOIR
COMMUNICATION
LOCALITY/ SURROUNDINGS
LENGTH & HEIGHT OF DAM
LIFE OF DAM
ROADWAY

Selection of Dam Type


1. TOPOGRAPHY
a) Arch dam :

Narrow V shaped
valley with sound
Abutments

b) Gravity Dam

: Moderately wide V
shaped valley with
sound bed rock.

c) Rockfill dam

:Plain & wide valley


and alluvial soil or
Boulders in the bed.

Selection of Dam Type

2. GEOLOGY / FOUDATION
a) Rock foundation

- Any type of Dam

b) Gravel & Coarse Sand

- Earth & Rockfill Dam

c) Fine Sand & Silt

- Earth Dams

d) Clay foundation

- Not suitable

Concrete Gravity Dam

Definition: A dam constructed of concrete or masonry that


relies on its own weight for stability is called
Gravity Dam.
Gravity dams are dams which resist the
horizontal thrust of the water entirely by their
own weight.

Components of Concrete Dam


-

FOUNDATION
NON OVERFLOW PORTION
OVERFLOW PORTION
D/S WORKS
DRAINAGE GALLERIES
UNDER SLUICES
SPECIAL SILT EXCLUSION ARRANGEMENTS
INTAKE
GATES
HOISTING ARRANGEMENTS
- ROPE DRUM
- HYDRAULIC
BRIDGE
INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR OBSERVATION ETC.

Assumptions made while establishing


stability of a gravity dam:
1. DAM IS MADE OF INDIVIDUAL TRANSVERSE
ELEMENTS EACH OF WHICH CARRIES ITS LOADS
TO THE FOUNDATION WITHOUT
TRANSFER OF
LOAD TO ADJACENT BLOCKS.
2.

THE VERTICAL STRESS VARIES LINEARLY FROM


U/S FACE TO D/S FACE ON ANY HORIZONTAL
SECTION.

Requirement for Stability


a.

THE DAM SHALL BE SAFE AGAINST SLIDING ON ANY


PLANE WITHIN THE DAM AND AT THE FOUNDATION.

b.

THE DAM SHALL BE SAFE AGAINST OVERTURNING AT


ANY PLANE WITHIN THE DAM AND AT THE BASE.

c.

THE SAFE UNIT STRESSES IN THE CONCRETE OF DAM OR IN


FOUNDATION MATERIAL SHALL NOT BE EXCEEDED.

Forces considered for Stability Analysis


1.

RESERVOIR AND TAIL WATER LOADS

2.

UPLIFT PRESSURE

3.

EARTHQUAKE

4.

EARTH AND SILT PRESSURES

5.

DEAD LOAD

6.

ICE PRESSURE

7.

WIND PRESSURE

8.

WAVE PRESSURE

9.

THERMAL LOADS

Load Combination
A. Load Combination A (Construction Condition)
- Dam completed but no water in reservoir and no tail water.
B. Load Combination B (Normal Operating Condition)
- Reservoir at maximum flood pool elevation, all gates open,
tail water at flood elevation, ormal uplift and silt (if
applicable)
C. Load Combination C (Flood Discharge Condition)
D. Load Combination D
- Combination A with earthquake
E. Load Combination E
- Combination B with earthquake but no ice.
F. Load Combination F
- Combination C but extreme uplift (drains inoperative)
G. Load Combination G
- combination E, but with extreme uplift (drains inoperative)

Partial Safety factors against Sliding


Loading

Fc

A,B,C
D,E
F,G

1.5
1.2
1.0

3.6
2.4
1.2

(W-U) tan / F + CA/Fc.


F.

------------------------------------------------------

P
F = Factor of safety against sliding
W = total mass of dam
U = total uplift force
tan = Coefficient of internal friction of material
C = Cohesion of the material at the plane considered
A = Area under consideration for cohesion
F = Partial FOS in respect of friction
Fc = Partial FOS in respect of Cohesion
P = Total horizontal force

Permissible tensile stress in Concrete


Load Combination
B
C
E
F
G

Permissible tensile stress


0
0.01 fc
0.02 fc
0.02 fc
0.04 fc

Where fc is the cube compressive strength of Concrete

SURGE TANK

Functions of Surge Tank


Reduces the water hammer pressure
Reduces conduit length subjected to water hammer
Improves stability and turbine governor
It acts as a small reservoir which can accept the refused
discharge and also meet the immediate requirement of water

Types of Surge Tank


a) According to the material of construction
b) According to location relative to terrain
c)According to location relative to power house
d)According to hydraulic design
e) Special surge tanks (Air Cushion Chambers)

Types of Surge Tank


According to the material of construction

CONCRETE SURGE TANKS


STEEL SURGE TANKS

Types of Surge Tank


According to location relative to terrain
EXCAVATED SURGE SHAFT
FREE STANDING SURGE TANK

Types of Surge Tank


According to location to Power
UPSTREAM SURGE TANK
DOWNSTREAM SURGE TANK

Types of Surge Tank


According to Hydraulic design
SIMPLE SURGE TANK
RESTRICTED ORIFICE SURGE TANK
DIFFERENTIAL SURGE TANK
SURGE TANK WITH EXPANSION CHAMBER
MULTIPLE SURGE TANK

SIMPLE SURGE TANK


These tanks are cylindrical in shape interposed between
penstock and pressure shaft.They may be;
UNDERGROUND SHAFTS OPEN AT THE TOP
UNDERGROUND CYLINDRICAL CAVITY CHAMBERS
OVERGROUND BUILT UP STRUCTURES IN RCC

RESTRICTED ORIFICE SURGE TANK


These tanks are modification of simple surge tank
with an orifice of an considerably smaller diameter
installed between the surge tank and the conduit
Involves considerable headloss due to throttling
Restricts max & min surge levels by dampening of surge
oscillations

DIFFERENTIAL SURGE TANK


It has an additional internal riser pipe provided with
annular ports opening into the outer surge shaft:
The head building function is achieved through the riser pipe
The storage function is achieved through the outer shaft

Factors affecting the layout of Surge-Shaft


Various components of the Water Conductor System
Discharge through the Water Conductor System
Transient flow conditions in the Water Conductor System
Length of the Water Conductor System
Turbo-generator and relief-valve mechanism
Ground topography and Geology

Design Considerations for Surge Tanks


Surge Tanks should be Hydraulically & Mechanically
stable and most economical:
Location of Surge Tank
Dampening of load variation in the Power System
Maximum & Minimum surge levels
Topography
Provision to avoid erosion of lining due to pressure variations

DESIGN CONDITIONS

The surge tank shall be designed to accommodate


the maximum and minimum water levels under
worst condition:a) The maximum upsurge level in the surge tank
b) The minimum down surge level in the surge tank

POWER
POWER HOUSE
HOUSE LL-- SECTION
SECTION

DECIDING THE POWER HOUSE LAYOUT


Depending upon the topography and geology of the area
power house can be located on surface or underground or
as a semi underground power house.
Surface power house
Underground power house
Semi underground or shaft power house

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LAYOUT OF


A HYDROPOWER STATION
Civil engineering considerations
Dimensioning and design of electrical and mechanical equipments
and accessories
Requirement of spaces, clearances and areas for efficient operation
and maintenance of power station.

POWER HOUSE

POWER HOUSE BUILDING CONSISTS OF THREE


MAIN AREAS NAMELY
Machine Hall/Unit Bay
Erection/Service Bay
Control Room/Auxiliary Bay

OVERALL DIMENSIONS OF POWERHOUSE


For working out the Powerhouse dimensions, generator diameter, its
weight, weight of rotor and the crane capacity including the crane
span are required. Based on data collected from various
Powerhouses, some curves and empirical formulae are available to
determine the above dimensions and weights depending upon the
speed, the installed capacity and the net head. Overall dimensions
of the Powerhouse are thus worked out by fixing the unit spacing.

MACHINE HALL
Depending upon structures, Machine Hall or Unit Bay can further be
divided into three main subdivisions.
SUB STRUCTURE
This is the main foundation member of the power house which contains
draft tube, draft tube elbow and cone, the foundation gallery and the sump.
INTERMEDIATE STRUCTURE
It is main part of the machine hall containing the spiral case, foundation for
stator and rotor, turbine floor etc.
SUPER STRUCTURE
Part of machine hall above the generator floor containing columns
supporting EOT crane, roof and the wall is related as super structure.

SELECTION OF TYPE OF TURBINE


Heads and discharges are the major criteria for the selection of
turbines. For low to medium heads, Kaplan turbines are
recommended: for medium to high heads having moderate discharge,
Francis turbines are recommended, for very high heads, Pelton turbines
are favored.
USBR recommends the selection of turbine as under:
Head

Type of Turbine

18m or less

Kaplan turbine

18 to 300m

Francis turbine

300m and above

Pelton turbine

FACTOR INFLUENCING SELECTION OF


TURBINE
Francis turbine requires less space and operate at higher running speed.
Hydraulically Francis turbine is more favourable because it can utilise the
head down to the lowest tail water level, whereas impulse turbine has to be
set up with a clearance of few meters above TWL.
Because of lower setting Francis turbine requires more excavation works.
Francis turbine involves extensive dismantling for replacement of worn out
labyrinth, runners, guide vane etc. Whereas replacement is easy in case of
impulse turbine.
Thus, the choice in each case is based on technical, economical and
operative requirements including transportation limits.

PRELIMINARY DIMENSIONING OF THE POWER


HOUSE SHALL INTER ALIA INCLUDE

Calculating specific speed and synchronous speed of turbine.


Calculating the discharge diameter.
Fixing the turbine setting
Calculating the spiral case dimensions
Calculating the draft tube dimensions
Fixing the height and weight measures i.e. crane span, crane rail
height, generator diameter & weight, weight of rotor and crane
capacity.
Finalizing overall dimensions of the power house.

BASIC DATA REQUIRED SHALL INCLUDE


Maximum water level (MWL) in the reservoir
Full reservoir level (FRL)
Minimum draw down level (MDDL)
Average tail water level
Minimum tail water level
Average altitude of the site
Maximum temperature of water
Number of units to be installed
Total anticipated installed capacity
Restrictions regarding setting of turbines.

DEFINITIONS
Maximum Head : The maximum head is defined as the difference
between maximum reservoir level without spillway discharge and
the minimum tail water level with one unit operating deducting the
head losses.
Minimum Head: The minimum head is the difference between
minimum draw down level and the minimum tail water level.
Design Head: The design head is defined as the head at which the
peak efficiency of the turbine is developed at a rated speed and is
calculated as under:
Design Head = 2/3 (Maximum head Minimum head)
+ Minimum head

NUMBER OF UNITS

The unit cost per kilowatt in a hydroelectric installation


decreases with lesser number of units. However, to meet large
variation of loads and ensure operation efficiency multi unit plants
have to be provided. In fact, during lower discharges in the river, 1
or 2 units are taken out for maintenance and repair.

Other equipment such as cranes, oil handling system,


compressed air system, etc. of smaller size are required in multi
unit installation. On the other hand, single unit installation have
lower operating and maintenance cost, but the cost of service
equipment as well as lesser energy generation due to break downs
have to be borne. As such a careful system study has to be
conducted before deciding the size and the number of the units.

LAYOUT OF SOME OF THE


IMPORTANT
HYDROELECTRIC
PROJECTS OF NHPC

BAIRA SIUL H.E. PROJECT

LOKTAK H.E. PROJECT

SALAL H.E.
PROJECT

TANAKPUR H.E. PROJECT

CHAMERA H.E. PROJECT

URI H.E. PROJECT

RANGIT H.E. PROJECT

DULHASTI H.E. PROJECT

DHAULIGANGA H.E. PROJECT

TEESTA H.E. PROJECT STAGE-V

LOKTAK D/S H.E. PROJECT

PARBATI H.E. PROJECT STAGE-II

SOME
PHOTOGRAPHS/PICTURESOF
THE IMPORTANT
HYDROELECTRIC
STRUCTURES/COMPONENTS

RIVER DIVERSION-TEHRI

EARTHEN
EARTHEN DAM
DAM WITH
WITH CONCRETE
CONCRETE
SPILLWAY
SPILLWAY&
& POWER
POWER HOUSE
HOUSE

CONCRETE
CONCRETEARCH
ARCH DAM
DAM

ROCKFILL
ROCKFILLDAMS
DAMS

BARRAGE URI HE PROJECT

SHIMEN DOUBLE CURVATURE ARCH DAM


CHINA

SHIZITAN ROCKFILL DAM


CHINA

UNDERGROUND POWERHOUSE
TEHRI HEP

EARTHEN DAM WITH CONCRETE


SPILLWAY & POWER HOUSE

CONCRETE ARCH DAM

IDUKKI ARCH DAM

CFRD UNDER CONSTRUCTION


DHAULIGANGA H.E. PROJECT

KENGKOU RCC DAM-CHINA

MOZITAN BUTRESS DAM CHINA

SANGTAO EARTH DAM CHINA

SPILLWAY RADIAL GATES


TEHRI H.E PROJECT

PI-SHI_HANG AQUEDUCT

FISH LADDER-URI BARRAGE

POWER INTAKE
SUBANSIRI LOWER H.E.PROJECT
HYDRAULIC BOOM
GRAPPLE/GRIPPER ARRANGEMENT
(MIN 1 TON CAPACITY AND RADIUS 10 M)

EL 220.00

LADDER
AIR VENT PIPE 300 DIA
(SUPPLY BY HM CONTRACTOR)
RANDOM BACKFILL

TOP EL 210.00
MWL 208.25
FRL 205.00
1000TH. SLAB BETWEEN
PIER/ABUTMENT

TRASH RACK
RCC BEAMS

EL 169.50

EL 160.00
EL 157.25

INTAKE STRUCTURE
TEHRI HEP

DESILTING BASIN-URI HEP

SURPLUS SLUICES-METTUR DAM

HEAD RACE TUNNEL


NATHPA JHAKRI H.EPROJECT

TUNNEL INSIDE AT BIFURCATION

ROCK BOLTING

SHOTCRETING

SEEPAGE INSIDE TUNNEL

DRILLING JUMBO

TUNNEL BORING MACHINE

PENSTOCKS
LOKTAK HEP-MANIPUR

POWERHOUSE L-SECTION

POWER HOUSE TURBO GENERATORSMETTUR DAM

POWERHOUSE MACHINE HALL-URI HE


PROJECT

POWERHOUSE MACHINE HALL


KENGKOU HEP

SPIRAL CASING UG POWERHOUSE


TEHRI HEP

SPIRAL CASING

POWER HOUSE ROTOR INSTALLATION


BAISHAM HEP - CHINA

POWER HOUSE STATOR INSTALLATION


BAISHAM HEP - CHINA

CANAL HEAD POWER HOUSE SARDAR


SAROVAR HEP

TURBO GENERATORS
INSTALLATION - UG POWERHOUSE
TEHRI HEP

TAILRACE OUTLET PORTAL


URI H.E.PROJECT

THANK
YOU