Economic Influences on the Media

 Most media is privately owned operating within a capitalist system  Media as Economic entity  Who owns them?  How are they Financially supported?  Who pays the bill?  Sometimes they are provided special privileges because they provide free information flow to the public.

Continuing Search for Audiences
 Audiences are linked to profits through advertising  Shifting fortunes of media organizations leads to hiring and firing of personal, softening of advertising market and a generalized worry about some media trends.

 Economic trends in the media can also have impact on the public. 

The New Media Giants
 Time – Warner 1989  Cable & News Network  NBC  ABC  BBC  CBC  Al-jazeera

Media As Businesses
 Newspapers  Magazines  Books  Movies  TV  Radio

Mass Communication

Instructor: Jawad Gilani

Politics and Media
Media Must Do Two things to survive in our system • They must provide a Communication System for the Nation • Media is an Advocate, and a bridge to its citizens; connecting social, economic and political institutions.

Social Responsibility of Media

Moral Values and Media
 Do parents have the right to protect their children from seeing morally challenging advertisements?  Adult rated Advertisements.

Two Arguments
 Government should not intervene and let the society decide and regulate its own moral values. (Free Media)  Conservative argue government should be responsible for the regulation of Media to keep checks.

National Crisis and Media
 During times of national reporting some kinds of information can give enemy and advantage.  1940 US-Germany Spy game.

Direct Censorship during Wartime
 Control of Information through deny of access to Media (TV, Print, Radio etc…)  Letting military scanners scan copies to protect information.

Protection of reporter’s sources
 Should the source be revealed under special circumstances?

Agents of Control over media
 Courts and the freedom of Press vs Citizen’s Rights

 Lawmakers  PEMRA

Executive Branch
 Includes host of Government departments and agencies.  Offices of Supreme Control (President’s House/ Prime Minister’s Secretariat

Outside Pressure Groups

Mass Communication

Instructor: Jawad Gilani

Advertising and Media
 Advertising now  It has vast power in compares with long shaping popular standing institution like standards. Schools and Church in  It is one of very few the magnitude of its institutions which can social influence. exercise social control.

What is advertising?
 The action of attracting public attention to a product or business  Advertising is controlled; it is prepared in accordance with desires of the firm or group it represents.

Content of Advertisements
 To accomplish their goals, the advertisements must make a persuasive appeal  Some advertisement content makes direct appeal mentioning characteristics of their products.

Advertising as an Industry
 Advertising Agencies  Media Services Organizations  Suppliers of Supporting Services  Advertising Departments in Retail Businesses  Adver

Advertising Agencies
Functions of Advertising Agencies 1. Planning 2. Creation and Execution 3. Coordination

Studying the Inside Advertising effectiveness of Agencies Advertising
 Account Management  The creative Department  Media Selection  The research department  Internal Control  Audience Research  Media Research  Copy Research Age market segmentation

Children and Advertising
 To what extent children pay attention to commercials?  Can children distinguish between fact and fiction in an ad?  Do children buy as a result of commercial?

Public Relations & Media
 PR is a process and a communication activity which connects public with information and ideas.  Public attention and understanding are often vital to the success of any government policy, business practice as well as individual concerns.

Individuals and Public Relations
 Individuals who want to achieve a positive public image through mass media face at least two types of problems:  1) Media and the organizations that service them are independent identities with their own goals, which might be far different from the publicity seekers.  2) There is a great competition for time and space in the news media, thus even some worthy individuals may not get media attention.

Public Relations In Practice
 A group of professional communicators, who call themselves public relation practitioners, who have a code of ethics and a professional accrediting process.  According to Cutlip and Center any Public Relations Program must include four basic steps.

PR in Practice
 Fact Finding and Feedback  Planning and Programming  Action and Communication  Evaluation

What PR People DO?
         Writing Editing Media Relations and Placement Special Events Speaking Production Research Programming and Counseling Training and Management

Public Relations Industry
 Independent PR counselor or Agency  PR Department of Business or Industry  PR departments of Non Profit institutions  Public sector PR  Political Consultants  Communication Policy Consultants  Communication specialists in technical areas.

The Surveillance function of the Press
 Inter-personal transmission of the news in early days.  How news facts get distorted?  Direct Observation  Expert opinion  News Release  Published Documents  Public Records

Strategies for Packaging the News
 Impact  Timeliness  Prominence  Proximity  The bizarre  Conflict  Currency

Styles of Journalism
 Sensationalism Journalism  Objective Journalism Separating fact from opinion Presenting an emotionally detached news Striving for fairness and balance

The New Journalism
 Scene setting  Extended dialogue  Point of view  Interior Monologue ( thoughts of people who were the news sources, might be included)  Creation of composite characters

Types of journalism continued
 Precision Journalism  Advocacy Journalism

Media Support Services
 Role of Auxiliaries  AP , UPI  The Wire Services  Cost efficiency across the nation  An impact on content and style  Yet another competitor (INS) International News Service

Wire services in Perspective
 The importance of wire services exceeds the monetary worth.  About 95% of the newspapers subscribe to wire services.  Major newspapers and TV stations send their reporters and still subscribe to wire services.

The supplement services
 Competition between AP and UNI increased in 1980’s.  This lead to emergence of other services providers e.g Dow Jones providing financial services, women news services providing women related news.  New York Times wire services, providing selected news stories.

The Syndicates
 Usually provide entertainment and opinion related content for the newspapers. E.g comic scripts, editorial cartoons etc.  Acquiring Content  Managing and Marketing content  Influences of Syndicates

Measuring Services
Measuring Circulation Measuring broadcast audience Types of Ratings Rating = Household tuned to station / total TV households x 100  Share = household tuned to station / households using tv x100  Households using Tv (HUT) = Sets turned on / total tv households x 100    

Continued …
 Obtaining ratings  People Meters Controversy  The rating problems  Rating and the news  Measuring public opinion

Role of media in our Society
 Essential part of our society  Symbol of strength in Society  Knowledge function of Media (Awareness function)  Media Watchdog  Commercialization of Media

Media and Public opinion
 Sensational depiction of News Stories  Race for gaining Television Rating Points (TRP’s)  Following up stories  Media Stories: A point to wonder

Media in our lives
 Weapons of Media  Same Message different ways  At times money supersedes news  Influencing judgment  Unessential activities broadcasted again and again.

Music Industry
 History of Music  Development of Instruments  Development of Recording Machines  Juke Box  Recording technologies  Music as an Industry

Method of Mass Communication Research
 Sources of trust worthy knowledge  Religion  Interpretations by authorities (priests, philosophers, kings)  Tradition  Common sense  Research!

Reasons for Conducting Research
 Public concern about media effects  Developing theories to explain media influences.  Solving practical problems

Effects of Mass Media
 Forces of Evil or saviors of democracy  Early claims of great power  The legacy of fear

Postulates of Science and goals of media research
 The assumption of order : Scientists always assume that objects and events that they are trying to study are regular in their behavior and their activities will form some kind of discoverable pattern.  Who? Says what? In what channel? To whom? With what effect?

Continued …
 The assumption of cause and effect: Scientist believe that it is possible to explain when, how and when events occur.. The assumption of tentative truth: Scientists do not believe that their conclusions ever provide a final answer , but instead a best possible answer.

Basic Vs Applied Research
 Basic research is not undertaken to increase anyone’s profits , but to simply advance knowledge.  Applied or Proprietary is conducted for someone to benefit financially.

Steps in scientific method
 Specifying the problem  Reviewing previous results  Making necessary observations  Data processing and analysis  Researching conclusions and interpreting findings  Reporting results

Research designs
 Experiments  Surveys  Observational studies  Content analysis

Media Influences on Individuals
 Early Researches: Large scale researches did not begin till late 1920’s.  A decade after world war I, researchers started working on studying changes in the society.

THE MAGIC Bullet Theory
 Theory is based on some very basic scientific assumptions which seemed very true at that time; concerning the fundamentals of human nature.  This theory was very consistent with public’s general view that the media had great power.

Continued ..
 Before realizing the overwhelming power of leaning, psychological and social scientists were greatly influenced by the ideas of Charles Darwin.  Charles Darwin placed human beings in the same continuum as other animals.  Earlier , the religion was the most important influence.

Continued …
 Social scientists rejected religious beliefs and believed that human beings were guided by “instincts” over which people lacked rational control. OR by other unconscious processes which were NOT guided by intellect.  This was a frightening view which saw human beings as irrational creatures, who could be easily controlled by cleverly designed media.

THE PAYNE fund Studies
 By 1920’s , the general public was already becoming uneasy about the influences of movies on children.  In 1929, an estimated 40 million minors, including more than 17 million children under 14 years, went to see movies at least weekly.  The Motion Picture Research Council

Continued ..
 Influences on everyday behavior.  Changes in Children attitudes. Attitudes towards: WAR/ Gambling/ The Chinese/ Punishment of Criminals. Implications of Results Findings of Payne Fund Studies seemed to give the Bullet theory a considerable support.

The Great Panic
 Radio Reports the invasion from Mars.  On October 30th, 1938 people who were listening to radio play on CBS, “Mercury Theatre of the Air” believed that United States was taken over by creatures from Mars.  Implication of Results: powerful effects , but not for all.

Changing Perspective on Media Influences
 An increased importance of Social Categories.  Racial and Ethnic Groups  Social institutions, family, Government …

Media in Presidential Campaigns
 How Media influences voters.  Improved research Methods

Children influenced by Media
 Patterns of Viewing  Uses of Programs  Implications of results  Violent content  Social Learning from role models

Media Influences on Society and Culture
 Two ways in which media can be instrumental in bringing change in the society.  A) Continuous presentation of information related to a particular event or issue, over an extended period of time ( Theory of accumulation of minimal effects)

Continued …
 A situation exists in which mass media begins to focus attention  Provide information consistently over a period of time.  People become increasingly aware  Information provided by the media changes beliefs  Those individual to individual changes accumulate and become new form of shared orientation.

Continued ..
 THE WATER GATE SCANDLE ( Exposing a President)  Extending democracy to all the citizens  Redefining the WAR

Theory of Adaptation
 We are constantly confronted with with innovations.  Innovation can be something adopted from another society or it can be something completely new.  People do not adapt to an innovation instantly even if the adaptation is logical and beneficial.

 The key to understand the part played by the mass media in this form of social change is to look closely at the process of adaptation.  Five stages of adaptation theory..  Awareness stage  Interest stage  Evaluation stage  Trial stage  Adaptation stage

Modeling theory
 Under certain circumstances , individuals who view particular actions that are performed by another person, may adopt that behavior as a part of their personal habits.  Individual sees a form of action carried out by a model  The individual identifies with the model  The individual remembers and reproduces  Performing the reproduced activity results in some reward.

Continued ..
 The positive reinforcement increases the probability that the person will reproduce the activity again.`

Social Expectations Theory
 What are the sources from which we acquire knowledge and social skills ?  From whom do we learn social expectations of others?  Social Organization  Ranking Position

Meaning Theory
 Theory sees the meanings people hold as strongly influenced by their exposure to Mass Communication.  1) Meaning is linked to a label  2)A member of audience undergoes some changed.  3) Individuals Communicate  4)As a result, behavior changes.

Stereotype Theory
 Clusters of negative meanings that are shared by many, concerning minority groups.  African-Americans  Cold War /Russians  Chinese/Immigrants