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SIZING OF

WATER
HEATERS

WATER HEATING
Water heating is a thermodynamic
process using an energy source
to heat water above its initial
temperature.

TRADITIONAL WATER
HEATERS

Kettle

cauldron

In industry, both hot water and water


heated to steam have many uses.
Appliances for providing a more-orless constant supply of hot water
are variously known as water
heaters, boilers, heat exchangers,
calorifiers, or geysers.
These are Mechanical Engineers
task.

TYPES OF WATER
HEATERS
1.Conventional or storage
water heater
2.Solar water heater
3.Storage and heat pump
water heater
4.On-demand or tankless or
instataneous water heater
5.Pool water heater

Conventional or Storage Water


Heater

Electric
Oil-fired

Gas-fired

Solar Water Heater

Passive Type with


Type with
Evacuated Tube Collector

Active
Flat-

Storage and Heat Pump Water


Heater

Storage tank
Heat pump

On-demand or tankless or
Instataneous Water Heater

Single Point
Multi-point

Pool Water Heater

Electric
Solar

Before buying a new water


heater,
you need to consider the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Size or FHR (First Hour Rating)


Energy efficiency
Fuel type and availability
Costs

IMPT. FACTORS OF
WATER HEATER
The Energy Factor
Energy Factor (EF) is an overall
efficiency rating of the water heater.
The higher the EF, the more efficient
the model. Water heaters with high
EF ratings may cost more initially but
save energy and money in the long
run. Eventually, they will pay for
themselves through a lifetime of
energy savings.

First Hour Rating


Another important factor in choosing a water
heater. The 1st Hour Rating is an indicator of
how much hot water a particular model can
provide. The rating, in gallons of usable
(desired temperature) hot water is reached by
combining the amount of usable hot water
stored in the tank plus how many gallons of
usable hot water the water heater can generate
in one hour of operation. For example, if a 40gallon natural gas water heater will store 31
gallons of usable hot water and can deliver 41
gallons of usable hot water in the first hour, its
1st Hour Rating is 72 gallons. 1st Hour Ratings
are included in the Energy Factor charts.

ENERGY SOURCES FOR


HEATING WATER
Natural gas or liquefied
petroleum gas
Oil or solid fuels
Electricity
Solar energy
Heat pumps
Hot water heat recycling
Geothermal heating

WATER HEATING IN SOME


COUNTRIES

Geothermal heating and hot water heat


recycling

SIZING OF STORAGE WATER HEATER


Basic Equation:
Q = W x cp x t
Where:
Q = time rated heat transfer, Btu/hr
W = weight of heated water, lbs/hr
cp = specific heat of water at standard
condition, say 1 Btu/lbF
t = change of heated temp of water F

The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu)


is a traditional unit of energy. It is
approximately the amount of energy
needed to heat one pound of water
one degree Fahrenheit. One Btu is
equal to about 1.06 kilojoules. It is
used in the power, steam generation,
heating and air-conditioning
industries.
Farenheit/Celsius Convertion
Formula:

SAMPLE PROBLEM
Design the water heater of a 4storey hotel with 60 guestrooms.
SOLUTION:
Hot water loads of a hotel
1. Guest rooms demand
2. Food service demand
3. Laundry demand

ASSUMPTIONS:
Number of Person per Room:
Convention hotel 1.5
person/room
Business/travellers hotel 1.5
person/room
General occupancy hotel 2
person/room
Peak Demand Period:
Convention hotel 1 hour peak
Business/travellers hotel 1 hour
peak

GIVEN:
no. of guestroom
60 rooms
no. of person/room 1.5
(assumed)
% of guests shower at
peak time
70% (assumed)
ave. shower time
5 min
(assumed)
max. flow of shower 2.5 gpm
supply water temp
68 F or
20C
hot water temp 105 F or

COMPUTATION FOR STORAGE


WATER HEATER:
Total no. of guests = 60 rms x 1.5
guest/room
= 90 guests
% of guests showering per hour = 90 x
0.70
= 63 guests per hour
Vol. of hot water = 63 x 5min/guest x
2.5gpm
= 787 gal of 105F at peak
Since stored water is 140F; equivalent

Q = 364gal/hr x 8.33lb/gal x 1Btu/lbF x


(140-68)F
= 218,313 Btu/hr
If Energy Factor of Water Heater is 0.90
then
Q = 218,313 = 242,570 Btu/hr
0.90
In KW: 242,570 Btu/hr =
3,413 Btu/KW.hr

71 KW

Properly size supply and recirculation


system is
necessary for efficient and economical
operation
Over sizing the system will cause
increased installation costs for
equipment and materials, and create
additional heat losses, lessening
efficiency.
Under sizing the system will seriously
hamper effective circulation, which

SIMPLE METHOD FOR SIZING


RECIRCULATING PUMPS

1 gpm for 20 fixtures units


0.5 gpm for each or 1
riser
1 gpm for each 1 or 1
riser
2 gpm for each 2 riser

SIZING OF SOLAR WATER


HEATER
FACTORS OF SOLAR WATER HEATER:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Economics
Geographic location and solar resource
Correct system size
Building structure

ACTIVE SOLAR WATER HEATER:


- Storage tank as per requirement per day
- 1.5 gal per square foot of collector

SIZING OF SOLAR WATER


HEATER
PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATER:
Storage Tank:
30 gal cap 1 to 2 persons
60 gal cap 2 to 3 persons
80 gal cap 3 to 4 persons
Collector Area for Tropical Countries:
- 20 ft for first two family members
- add 8 ft for each additional family
members

COMPUTATION FOR SOLAR WATER


HEATER:
Total no. of guests = 60 rms x 1.5
guest/room
= 90 guests
Vol. of hot water = 90 x 5min/guest x
2.5gpm
= 1,125 gal of 105F at peak
Since stored water is 140F; equivalent
volume is
Vol = (105 68) x 1,125 gal = 578
gal

SIZING OF HEAT PUMP WATER


HEATER
Heat pump water heaters require
installation in locations that remain in
the 40F 90F (4.4C 32.2C) range
year-round and provide at least 1,000
cubic feet (28.3 cubic meters) of air
space around the water heater.

In sizing the water heat pump


requirement, use the Btu/hr or kW
capacity of the water heat pump but do
not use the peak load alone, use a whole
day hot water requirement.

COMPUTATION FOR SOLAR WATER


HEATER:
Total no. of guests = 60 rms x 1.5
guest/room
= 90 guests
Vol. of hot water = 90 x 5min/guest x
2.5gpm
= 1,125 gal of 105F at peak
Since stored water is 140F; equivalent
volume is
Vol = (105 68) x 1,125 gal = 578
gal
(140 68)

FACTORS OF DEMAND (TANKLESS OR


INSTANTANEOUS) WATER HEATER

Advantages of Tankless:
Continuous hot water
Uses energy only when hot
water is
demanded
Lower energy costs (11% - 60%
energy savings)
Designed to last 20 years
Smaller than hot water tank
units, saving

FACTORS OF DEMAND (TANKLESS OR


INSTANTANEOUS) WATER HEATER
Disadvantages of Tankless:
Must size the unit correctly to avoid losing hot
water
May need more than one tankless unit to heat
water for more than one shower
More expensive than hot water tank units
May need to limit the flow of water to properly
heat water (for example, to fill a tub)
Existing gas and water lines may need to be
increased in size
Need to be serviced periodically (to clean
scale build-up)
More complex/difficult to service than
standard water heater

SIZING OF DEMAND (TANKLESS OR


INSTANTANEOUS) WATER HEATER
Demand (tankless or instataneous) water
heaters are rated by the maximum
temperature rise possible at a given
flow rate. Therefore, to size a demand
water heater, you need to determine
the flow rate and the temperature rise
youll need for its application (whole
house or a remote application, such as
just a bathroom) in your home.

SIZING OF DEMAND (TANKLESS OR


INSTANTANEOUS) WATER HEATER

Typically, a 70F (39C) water


temperature rise is possible at a flow
rate of 5 gallons per minute through
gas-fired demand water heaters and
2 gallons per minute through electric
ones.
Faster flow rates or cooler inlet
temperatures can sometimes reduce
the water temperature at the most
distant faucet.To reduce flow rates,
install low-flow water fixtures.

ARISTON INSTANTANEOUS WATER HEATER


SPECIFICATION

Specifications
GL6 PLUS
Tank Volume
6 Gallons
Dimensions

GL 2.5
2.5 Gallons

14x14x 10"
17x17x 14

Recovery at
8 GPH*
12.5 GPH*
90F Rise Water
Connections
inch NPT
inch NPT
Relief Valve
installed
included

GL4
4 Gallons
14x14x12

10.5 GPH*

inch NPT
installed

MOST INSTANTANEOUS WATER HEATER


SPECIFICATION

Power Rating = 4,500W or 4.5kW


Convert kW to Btu/hr = 4.5 x 3,413 =
15,358.5 Btu/hr
Q = W x cp x t
then W =
Q
=
15,358.5_
cp x t
1 x (105 -68)
Q = 415 lbs = __415 lbs/hr_ = 49.82 gal/hr
8.33lbs/gal
Q = 49.82 gal/hr = 0.83 gpm
60min/hr

SIZING A GAS OR HEAT PUMP


SWIMMING POOL HEATER

Gas pool heaters are rated by


Btu (British thermal unit) output.
Outputs range from 75,000 Btu
to 450,000 Btu.
Heat pump pool heaters are
rated by Btu output and
horsepower (hp). Standard sizes
include 3.5 hp/75,000 Btu, 5
hp/100,000 Btu, and 6

Calculating Approximate
Size
Determine your desired swimming pool

temperature.
Determine the average temperature for
the coldest month of pool use.
Subtract the average temperature for the
coldest month from the desired pool
temperature. This will give you the
temperature rise needed.
Calculate the pool surface area in square
feet.
Use the following formula to determine the
Btu/hour output requirement of the heater:

Btu/Hr = Pool Area x Temp


Rise x 12
This formula is based on 1 to
1.25F temperature rise per
hour and a 3.5 mile per hour
average wind at the pool
surface. For a 1.5F rise
multiply by 1.5. For a 2F rise
multiply by 2.0.

Thank you