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INTRODUCTION TO PCB

Printed Circuit
Board

Circuit connects components through


board
Made of alternating layers of
conducting and insulating materials

Why
PCB?
Features
Surprisingly Affordable
Highly reliable
Compact

Drawbacks
Requires more layout than other board
types
Higher initial cost than wire wrap or
point-to-point construction

IntroductiontoaPrintedCircuitBoard

Aprinted circuit board (PCB)mechanicallysupportsand


electricallyconnectselectronic
componentsusingconductivetracks,padsandother
featuresetchedfromcoppersheetslaminatedontoanonconductivesubstrate.
PCB'scanbesinglesided(onecopperlayer),double
sided(twocopperlayers)ormulti-layer.

APCBpopulatedwithelectroniccomponentsiscalleda
printedcircuitassembly(PCA),printedcircuitboard
assemblyorPCBassembly(PCBA)

WhatPCBismadeof
AbasicPCBstartswithacopper-cladfiberglassmaterialor
thincoppersheetsattachedtoeithersideoftheboard.It
consistof: CopperFoil
CopperPlating
SolderFlow
SolderMask
Trace
SlotsandCut-outs

PCBcharacteristics
Through-holetechnology
ThefirstPCBsusedthrough-holetechnology,mountingelectronic
componentsbyleadsinsertedthroughholesononesideoftheboard
andsolderedontocoppertracesontheotherside.Boardsmaybe
single-sided,withanunplatedcomponentside,ormorecompact
double-sidedboards,withcomponentssolderedonbothsides

Surface-mounttechnology
Surface-mounttechnologyemergedinthe1960s,gainedmomentumin
theearly1980sandbecamewidelyusedbythemid-1990s.
Componentsweremechanicallyredesignedtohavesmallmetaltabsor
endcapsthatcouldbesoldereddirectlyontothePCBsurface,instead
ofwireleadstopassthroughholes

Etchingprocess
Chemical etch
Chemicaletchingisusuallydonewithammoniumper
sulphateorferricchloride.
ForPTH(plated-throughholes),additionalsteps
ofelectrolessdepositionaredoneaftertheholesare
drilled,thencopperiselectroplatedtobuildupthe
thickness,theboardsarescreened,andplatedwith
tin/lead.Thetin/leadbecomestheresistleavingthe
barecoppertobeetchedaway.
Cont.

Laser/Plasma Etch
Anewprocesscreatingnewstandardsandthe
demiseofthechemicalprocessisplasmaetch.
Inadditiontonoetch-back,thisprocessalso
eliminatesimaging,orfilmerrorusingadirect
imagingprocess,whichtransfersthelayer
imagedirectlytothematerial.

DesignAssembly
ManualAssembly

AutoAssembly

Hole preparation is normally


done in the manufacturing
process that plates/or coats the
exposedcopperareaswithsolder.
Thispreparesthesurfaceofpads,
as well as the hole itself, with a
finecoatofsolderthatwillmake
soldering easier by helping the
solderadheretothepadandhole
wall and helping the solder to
"wick"throughthehole.

Autoassemblyisanautomated
process where most of the
component on a board are
placed and soldered to the
board by machine. Auto
assembly requires additional
information from the designer,
in addition to the standard
Assembly

information
providedformanualassembly.

AssemblyLimitation
Thenumberofpartsthatcanbeassembledin
onepass
Double-sidedassembly
Overallpanel/boardsize
Componentsize
Componenttypes(surfacemountorthru-hole)

Routing
ManualRoute

AutoRoute

Routethefollowingtypesof
netsfirst:
Mostdifficult
Mostcomplex
Tightfittingnetsfirst
Veryhighcurrent
(primarilyexternal)
Veryhighvoltage
(primarilyinternal)

Manuallyroutethose
itemsshownin"manual
routing"first,if
necessary.
Manuallycleanuppaths.
Miterrightanglecorners.
RunDRC/designrulesto
ensureclearancesaremet.
Checkannularring.

Parts of a PCB

Components
Pads
Traces
Vias
Top Metal Layer
Bottom Metal Layer

Components
Components are the actual devices
used in the circuit.
This includes input/output
connections.
I/O ports, including power supply
connections, are also important in
the PCB design.

Pads
Location that components connect
to.
You will solder components to the
pads on the PCB.
Pads will connect to traces.
Pads have an inner diameter and
outer diameter.

Traces
Traces connect pads together.
Traces are essentially the wiring of
the PCB.
Equivalent to wire for conducting
signals
Traces sometimes connect to vias.
High current traces should be wide.
Signal traces usually narrower than
power or ground traces