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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.1-1. Some common types of adsorption isotherms.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.1-2. Plot of data for Example 12.1-1.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.2-1. Solution to Example 12.2-1.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.3-1. Concentration profiles for adsorption in a fixed bed: (a) profiles at
various positions and times in the bed; (b) breakthrough concentration profile in
the fluid at outlet of bed.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.3-2. Determination of capacity of column from breakthrough


curve.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.3-3. Breakthrough curve for Example 12.3-1.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.5-1. Coordinates for a triangular diagram.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.5-2. Liquid-liquid phase diagram where components A and B


are partially miscible.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.5-3. Acetic acid (A)-water (B)-isoprophyl ether (C) liquidliquid phase diagram at 293 K (20 C).

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.5-4. Phase diagram where the solvent parts B-C and A-C are
partially miscible.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.5-5. Graphical addition and lever-arm rule: (a) process flow;
(b) graphical addition.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.5-6. Single-stage equilibrium liquid-liquid extraction: (a) process


flow diagram; (b) plot on phase diagram.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.6-1. Typical mixer-settlers for extraction: (a) separate mixersettler; (b) combined mixer-settler.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.6-2. Spray type extraction tower.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.6-3. Flooding correlation for packed extraction towers.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.6-4. Perforated-plate or sieve-tray extraction tower.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.6-5. Mechanically agitated extraction towers: (a) Scheibel


rotating-agitator tower; (b) Karr-reciprocating-plate tower.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-1. Countercurrent-multistage-extraction-process flow


diagram.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-2. Use of the mixture point M for overall material balance in
counter-current-solvent extraction.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-3. Method to perform overall material balance for


Example 12.7-1.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-4. Operating point and number of theoretical stages


needed for countercurrent extraction.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-5. Graphical solution for countercurrent extraction in Example 12.7-2.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-6. Solution for extraction wih immiscible liquids in


Example 12.7-3.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-7. Extraction-tower flows: (a) process flow and material


balance for countercurrent extraction tower; (b) operating line for
minimum solvent flow for tower and actual operating line.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.7-8. Operating and equilibrium line for Example 12.7-4.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.8-1. Typical fixed-bed apparatus for sugar beet leaching.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.8-2. Equipment for moving-bed leaching: (a) Bollman buckettype extractor; (b) Hildebrandt screw-conveyor extractor.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.8-3. Countercurrent leaching using thickeners.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.9-1. Several typical equilibrium diagrams: (a) case for vertical
tie lines and yA = XA; (b) case where yA XA for tie lines.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.9-2. Process flow and material balance for single-stage


leaching: (a) process flow; (b) material balance.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.9-3. Graphical solution of single-stage leaching for


Example 12.9-1.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.10-1. Process flow for countercurrent multistage leaching.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.10-2. Number of stages for multistage countercurrent leaching.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.10-3. Graphical construction for number of stages for


Example 12.10-1.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.11-1. Solubility of sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3, in water.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.11-2. Process flow for crystallization in Example 12.11-1.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.11-3. Types of crystallizers: (a) circulating-liquid evaporatorcrystallizer; (b) circulating-magma vacuum crystallizer.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.12-1. Typical partical-size distribution from a crystallizer.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.12-2. Determination of population density n of crystals.

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Chapter 12: Liquid-Liquid and Fluid-Solid Separation Processes

Figure 12.12-3. Plot of population density n versus length for


Example 12.12-1.

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