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Glass

Glass

Is an amorphous solid material which is often

transparent and has widespread practical,


technological, and decorative usage in things like
window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

History of Glass
People had used naturally occurring glass,

especially obsidian (the volcanic glass) before


they learned how to make glass.
The ancient Roman historian Pliny suggested that

Phoenician merchants had madethe first glass in


the region of Syria around 5000BC.
But according to the archaeological evidence, the

first man made glass was in Eastern Mesopotamia


and Egypt around 3500BC and the first glass
vessels were made about 1500BC in Egypt and
Mesopotamia. For the next 300 years, the glass
industry was increased rapidly and then declined.

Materials

Silica Sand
o A particular sand deposit that contains almost
o
o
o
o
o

nothing but silicate minerals.


The most common sand forming mineral is
quartz.
Other components of silica sand: cristobalite,
tridymite, aluminum, feldspar
The primary ingredient for glass production
Also called as INDUSTRIAL SAND
Silica sand deposits are most commonly
surfacemined in open pit operations, but dredging
and underground mining are also employed

Country House
Silica Sand
Quarry

Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)


o also known as washing soda, soda ash
and soda crystals
o main use in glass making is that it acts
as a flux for silica
o There are two main sources of sodium
carbonate:a) from salt and calcium
carbonate (via the ammonia soda
(Solvay) process)b) from sodium
carbonate and hydrogen carbonate
ores (trona and nahcolite)

THE SOLVAY
PROCESS

trona
(Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2
O)

nahcolite

Lime
a manmade chemical which is produced from a

sufficiently pure sedimentary rock by heating it


to high temperature in a kiln. This process is
referred to as"calcining"the limestone.
The word "lime" originates with its earliest use as

building mortar and has the sense of "sticking or


adhering.
Addition of lime increases the hardness and chemical

durability and insolubility of glass


MAGNESIUM OXIDE AND ALUMINIUM OXIDE can

also be used to enhance the properties of glass.


2 Types of Lime:

a. Quicklime
b. Hydrated Lime

THE LIME CYCLE

Limestone Quarry in New Zealand

Additives:
1. Lead Oxide
has better
reflective
properties and
therefore the
glass seems to
sparkle.

Additives:
2.Boric Oxide
-Pure form of
B2O3
-changes the
thermal and
electrical
properties of the
glass

Additives:
3.Potassium
Oxide
-mostly used to
make stained
glass windows for
medieval
cathedrals.

Additives:
4.Zinc Oxide
-excellent raw
material for
manufacturing optical
glass
-also used for UVblocking sunglasses

Additives:
5. Barium Oxide
-replaced lead (II)
oxide in the
production of certain
kinds of glass such as
optical crown glass.

Additives:
6. Germanium Oxide
- added to glass to
increase the index of
refraction

Requirements to
Produce Glass

The quality of the glass depends largely on the

quality of the sand. For example only the purest


sand can be used for the production of optical
glass.
Clay materials are objectionable.
Melting process should be permanently

controlled.
Pass the thermal shock testing, rain testing and

strain testing (depends on type of glass).

Types of Glass
(according to intended application )

Annealed Glass
the basic flat glass product that is the first result

of the float process. It is common glass that tends


to break into large, jagged shards. It is used in
some end products and often in double-glazed
windows.

Toughened Glass
far more resistant to breakage than simple

annealed glass and designed to break in a more


predictable way when it does break, thus
providing a major safety advantage in almost all
of its applications.

Laminated Glass
Regarded as safety glass.
manufactured by combining two or more

annealed or heat treated glass sheets bonded


with one or more of PVB (polyvinyl butyral)
interlayers and subjected to heat and pressure, in
order to ensure perfect adhesion between the
constituent elements.

Coated Glass

Surface coatings are applied to glass to modify its

appearance and give it many of the advanced


characteristics and functions such as low
maintenance, special
reflection/transmission/absorption properties,
scratch resistance, corrosion resistance, etc.

Mirrored Glass

a metal coating is applied to one side of the glass.

The coating is generally made of silver,


aluminium, gold or chrome. For simple mirrored
glass, a fully reflective metal coating is applied
and then sealed with a protective layer. To
produce "one-way" mirrors, a much thinner metal
coating is used, with no additional sealing or
otherwise opaque layer.

Patterned Glass

flat glass whose surfaces display a regular

pattern.
mostly used in internal decoration and internal

architecture. It is typically used for functional


reasons, where light but not transparency is
desired.

Extra Clear Glass


made with a very low iron content in order to

minimize its sun reflection properties


lets as much light as possible through the glass.