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About BHEL
CNC Overview
Block Diagram of CNC
Basic Parts of CNC
Types of CNC Machines
PLC Overview
Why PLC?
History of PLC
PLC programming
Advantages & Disadvantages

BHEL was established more than 50 years ago when its first plant was setup
in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in

BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation's
& Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable
Energy, Defense, etc.

The Company today enjoys national and international presence featuring in

the Fortune International -500 and is ranked among the top 10 companies
in the world, manufacturing power generation equipment.

CNC stands for Computer Numerated Control.
CNC is the automotation of machine tools that are
operated by precisely programmed commands encoded
on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually
via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated
via cams alone.
CNC machines accept programs in the form of G Codes
which are instructions that provide the direction and
speed for the tool trajectory.

The major components associated with a CNC system are power supply,
PLC, servo drives, CRT monitor and keyboard and some other special

CNC reads in the signal from the axis encoder from the measuring card
which is placed in one of the slots of the controller.

Basic Parts Of CNC Machine:

Central processing unit (CPU)
Servo-control unit
Operator control panel
Programmable logic controller


Turning Centers
Milling Centers
Vertical Machining
Horizontal Machining
Drilling Machines
EDM Machines
Laser-Cutting Machines

Important terms related to CNC machining

Machine Zero - Machine zero is a point at the origin of the machines coordinate
measuring system. All the Axis movements and other dimensions are measured
from this point. It is similar to the origin of coordinate measuring system.

Machine reference point - It refers to the initial point of return for the purpose of
measuring feedback systems. Whenever a CNC machine is switched on the
feedback system has to be initialized by referring this point on every axis.

Work Zero - This is the origin for the measuring of dimensions of workpiece. The
programmer is free to select it anywhere on the drawing.

Absolute measuring system - In this measuring system all the dimensions are
made from the work zero, which are defined. The machine control uses work zero
as the reference point to position the tool during program execution. The main
advantage of programming in absolute system is that any point can be readily
changed without affecting subsequent dimensions

Programmable Logic Controller(PLC) is a
solid state device designed to perform logic functions.
PLC in general contains a processor and a human
machine interface as monitor and signal interface
between machine and PLC.
Essentially PLC is assembly of solid state digital
electronic elements designed to make logical decisions
and provide outputs.

History of PLC
PLC was introduced in late 1960s
First commercial & successful Programmable Logic
Controllers was designed and developed by Modicon as
a relay replacer for General Motors.
Earlier, it was a machine with thousands of electronic
Later ,in late 1970s,the microprocessor became reality &
greatly enhanced the role of PLC permitting it to evolve
form simply relay to the sophisticated system as it is

Relay based Process or Machine Control
is Expensive and Rigid.
Need for programmable and
reconfigurable control
Move towards Flexible Automation

Areas of Application

Process control
Control of Machinery
Control of Equipments
Certain Aspects of Control in CNC
machines and Matching Centers

PLC Components
Any PLC Has
1) A Microprocessor based CPU
2) Input/Output Section(I/O Section)
Digital and analog I/O s
3) Programming Device
Usually a Computer

PLC Programming

Ladder diagram (LD)

Sequential Function Charts (SFC)
Function Block Diagram (FBD)
Structured Text (ST)
Instruction List (IL)

Advantages of PLCs:

Handles much more complicated systems.

Less and simple wiring.
Increased Reliability.
More Flexibility.
Lower Cost .
Faster Response.
Easier to troubleshoot.
Remote control capability.
Communication Capability.

Disadvantages of PLCs:
In contrast to microcontroller systems that have what is called
an open architecture, most PLCs manufacturers offer only
closed architectures for their products .
PLC devices are proprietary, which means that parts and
software from one manufacturer cant easily be used in
combination with parts of another manufacturer, which limits
the design and cost options.
PLC were Designed for Relay Logic Ladder and have
Difficulty with some Smart Devices.
To maximize PLC performance and Flexibility, a number of
Optional Modules must be added


Originally hardwired arrays of

relays were used to control the
operation of heavy machines that
contain motors and other high power

PLCs were originally used to

substitute the switching relay
networks used in industrial
applications, but now they can also
be used to implement other tasks
such as timing, delaying,counting,
calculating, comparing and
processing of analog signals.