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DC Circuits Lecture

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Dc circuits

NEE 311

Tumbaga

Voltage

requires some work of energy transfer. This work is performed by

an external electromotive force (emf), typically represented by the

battery. This emf is also known as voltage or potential

difference.

Where:

w = energy (J)

q = charge (C)

= voltage (V)

1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb = 1 newton-meter/coulomb

VOLTAGE (POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE) is the energy required to

move a unit charge through an element, measured in volts (V).

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

TRIVIA:

Alessandro Antonio Volta (1745

1827), an Italian physicist, invented the

electric batterywhich provided the rst

continuous ow of electricityand the

capacitor. Born into a noble family in

Como, Italy, Volta was performing

electrical experiments at age 18. His

invention of the battery in 1796

revolutionized the use of electricity. The

publication of his work in 1800 marked

the beginning of electric circuit theory.

Volta received many honors during his

lifetime.

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

same voltage. In Fig. (a), point a is 9V above point b; in Fig. (b),

point b is V above point a. We may say that in Fig. (a), there is a 9V voltage drop from a to b or equivalently a 9-V voltage rise from b

to a. In other words, a voltage drop from a to b is equivalent to a

voltage rise from b to a.

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

current or a voltage (or even electromagnetic wave) when it is used

for conveying information.

Like electric current, a constant voltage is called a dc voltage and is

represented by V, whereas a sinusoidally time-varying voltage is

called an ac voltage and is represented by v. A dc voltage is

commonly produced by a battery; ac voltage is produced by an

electric generator.

Keep in mind that electric current is always through an element

and that electric voltage is always across the element or between

two points.

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

electric circuit, they are not sufcient by themselves. For practical

purposes, we need to know how much power an electric device can

handle.

P

Where:

P = power (W)

w = energy (J)

t = time (s)

1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb

= 1 newton-meter/coulomb

POWER is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy,

measured in watts (W).

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

enters through the positive terminal of an element and p=+vi. If

the current enters through the negative terminal, p= -vi.

The positive sign indicates a power absorbed while the negative

sign indicates a power supplied.

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

This again conrms the fact that the total power supplied to the

circuit must balance the total power absorbed.

ENERGY is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J).

(Wh), where

1 Wh = 3,600 J

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

Problems:

through a light bulb. If 2.3 kJ is given off in the form of light and heat

energy, calculate the voltage drop across the bulb.

Ans. 115V

2. To move charge q from point a to point b requires - 30J. Find the

voltage drop vab if: (a)q = 6C, (b) q= -3C. Ans. -5V, 10V

3. Find the power delivered to an element at t=3ms if the current

entering its positive terminal is i = 5cos60t A and the voltage is: (a) v

= 3i, (b) .v = 3 di/dt.

Ans. 53.48W, -6.396kW

4. Find the power delivered to the element in Example 3 at t=5ms if the

current remains the same but the voltage is: (a) v=2i V, (b) v= (10+ ) V.

Ans. 17.27W, 29.7W

5. How much energy does a 100-W electric bulb consume in two hours?

Ans. 200Wh

6. A stove element draws 15 A when connected to a 240-V line. How long

does it take to consume 180 kJ? Ans. 50s

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

10

and doesn't correct it is committing

another mistake.

confucius

~The End~

Engr. J.L.

Tumbaga

7/22/15

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