DELHI

Population Vehicles:
70 percent motorcycles 15 - 20 thousand buses

13 m 2 - 2.5 m

~ 50 percent trips walking/bicycling 60 percent of motorised trips by bus Ideal situation?

IIT Delhi

Complex traffic

IIT Delhi

CURRENT POLICIES
Taxis >8 Years to be phased out by 2001-03-31 All three wheeled taxis on CNG/4stroke

?

?

Premixed 2T oil with petrol for 2-stroke engines More stringent emission norms (cars) and 4 stroke engines for motrocycles/scooters Lead free and low sulphur fuel MRTS implementation underway ? Flyovers and expressways ? All buses on CNG ?
IIT Delhi

Comparison of CO emissions under various scenarios of bus fuels
50 40 30 20 10 0
Vikas Marg NanakPura Location AIIMS

CO (kg/hr)

No shift from buses

Current

All CNG

All Euro II

Mix CNG-Euro-II

60 50 CO(kg/hr) 40 30 20 10 0 Vikas Marg NanakPura Location Current CNG+10% shift All Euro II Mix CNG-Euro-II AIIMS

!0% shift from buses to 2-wheelers

IIT Delhi 2002

Comparison of PM emissions under various scenarios of bus fuels
1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

PM(kg/hr)

No shift from buses
Vikas Marg NanakPura Location AIIMS

Current

All CNG

All Euro II

Mix CNG-Euro-II

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Vikas Marg NanakPura Location Current CNG + 15% shift All Euro II Mix CNG-Euro-II AIIMS

PM(kg/hr)

!5% shift from buses to 2-wheelers

IIT Delhi 2002

Proportion of trips and road accident fatalities for different road users in Delhi (1994)
Percent 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Car/Taxi Bus MTW Bicycle Pedestrian

Trips

Fatalities

IIT Delhi

Public transport Issues
Marginal cost of a 20 km trip on a motorcycle US$ 0.35 Affordable bus cost for US$ 0.35 round trip per passenger without subsidy - US$ 10,000 New diesel bus in India New CNG bus in India International buses - US$ 30,000 - US$ 40,000 >> US$ 100,000

IF MRTS AND BUS FARES ARE HIGHER THAN EXPENSE ON MOTORCYCLE USE, POLLUTION, ACCIDENTS AND INJURY MAY INCREASE
IIT Delhi

SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT

Conflicts in the bus lane
IIT Delhi

PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Promotion of public transport only possible if pedestrians and bicyclists safer Designs of bus stands and vehicles for safe entry and exit Role of street hawkers and vendors to be integrated in road design Provision of segregated bicycle lanes on all arterial roads otherwise bus operation inefficient Wider use of traffic calming techniques Convenient bus stop locations Development of safer bus front designs and standards
IIT Delhi

ROLE OF INDIGENOUS AND SMALL VEHICLES

Vehicles like these could be the most efficient urban taxis in the future
IIT Delhi

TST ADVANTAGES PARKING
Reduction in parking space
private vehicle needs two parking spots – one at home and one at destination A taxi needs one parking place at night and a few for picking up and dropping off passengers in the daytime.

Shadow area:

 Car

-

5 – 8 sq m  TST

-

2.25 sq m

IIT Delhi 2002

TST ADVANTAGES Road use
At similar urban speeds TSTs occupy ½ the road space that a car Reduction in road congestion

 Car

 TST

IIT Delhi 2002

TST ADVANTAGES Energy Use
TSTs have much smaller engines than cars, therefore energy consumption is much less

 Car -

8 – 18 km/l  TST -

25-35 km/l

IIT Delhi 2002

TST ADVANTAGES Pollution
TSTs have much smaller engines than cars, therefore pollution is much less Car 24g/km  CO - 0.05g/km  SO2 TST 12g/km - 0.03g/km

 CO  SO2

IIT Delhi 2002

TST ADVANTAGES Wear and tear of road and tyres
Cars are at least three times heavier than cars
1 car produces as much damage to road as three TSTs Rubber pollution from tyres for cars >> TSTs Waste disposal from cars >> TSTs

 Car -

> 1000 kg

 TST

-

300 kg

IIT Delhi 2002

INSTITUTIONAL
Training programmes for professionals Establishment of regional research centres Transportation information clearing house Induction of professionally trained personnel in national and multilateral aid agencies Establishment of transportation planning road & safety departments in transportation & urban ministries Establishment of multidisciplinary groups in universities

IIT Delhi