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# Power electronic Converters for grid integrated

## VIT UNIVERSITY, VELLORE

School of Electrical Engineering

Guided By
Dr. M. Kowsalya

Outline
1: Objective
2:Introduction
3:Methodology
4:Block diagram
5:Simulation results
6:References

Objective
To analyse the transient performance and grid impact analysis
capability of a gearless VSWT based on MATLAB/ SIMULINK.
To study the control performance and transient behaviour of a
gearless VSWT under varying wind speeds.

Introduction
Non-renewable energy resources are depleting, inefficient and
pollutes the environment
Future scope is on renewable energy resources such as wind, solar,
fuel cell, etc
Renewable energy taken here for this project is wind. Variable
speed wind turbine is used for modelling and analysis.
Distributed wind generation cannot be connected easily to the
electric grid without the evaluation on control performance and grid
impact

## The wind model system consists of:

Variable speed wind turbine
AC to DC converter
Voltage source inverter
Transformer and power grid

## Design of wind Speed

Wind Speed is a combination of four component(step speed, ramp speed,
Gust Speed, Noise Speed)
Vw = Vgust + Vramp + Vstep + Vnoise
Gust Speed: Vgust is represented by sudden change in speed. It is given
by:
VGust =
VCOS = (MAXG/2){1-cos2[(t/T1G) (T1G/TG)]}
TG = Gust Period in sec(16.66e-3), T1G = Gust starting time in sec(14e-3).
MAXG = Gust peak in mi/sec , t = Time in sec.

Ramp Speed:

## Step Speed: (VStep) = KB (m/sec) ,where KB is a constant.

Noise Speed: VNoise = 2 (i)]1/2 Cos(it + i), t<0
Where i = (I 1/2), I = a random variable on time interval o to
2
2.
Sv(i)= (2KNF2|i|)(2[1 + (Fi/)2]4/3)
Where :
KN = Surface drag coefficient(0.004)
F= Turbulane scale(2000), = Mean wind speed at reference height.
For I =1 Sv(w1) = 0.000002076
For I =2 Sv(w2) = 0.0000003326
For I =3,Sv(w3)= 0.0000001418
For I =4,Sv(w4)= 0.00000008090
For I =5,Sv(w5)= 0.00000005325
For I =6,Sv(w6)= 0.00000003811
For I =7,Sv(w7)= 0.0000000288
For I =8,Sv(w8)= 0.0000000227
For I =9,Sv(w9)= 0.0000000184
For I =10,Sv(w10)= 0.0000000153

Noise Speed

## Wind Speed(Vw )= Vgust + Vramp + Vstep + Vnoise

Wind Speed

Turbine Design
Design of wind Turbine:
Mechanical power extracted from Wind (Pm):
Pm = Cp(, )(PW), PW = 0.5AV3w
Tm(Mechanical Torque)= (Pm/r).
Cp(, )is given by : C1(C2 C3 C42 C5)e-C6 + C7.
Value of power coefficient from C1 to C7 are as follows:
C1 = 0.5, C2 = 116/i, C3 = 0.4, C4 = 0, C5 = 5, C6 = 21/i, C7 =
0.0068.
(1/i)= (1/0.08+) (0.035/3+1)

Pm
PW
Cp(, )

## Mechanical power extracted from wind(W)

Kinetic energy contained in wind
Power coefficient of Turbine

A(R2)
R

Air density(kg/m3)
Turbine swept area(m2)
Tip speed ratio of the rotor blade tip speed to wind
speed
Wind Speed(m/s)

Vw
r

## Data for Wind Turbine

Design:
Wind Turbine Characteristics

Value

12.35m/s

Rating

2 MW

Air Density

0.55kg/m3

37.5 m

18 rpm

Pitch angle

0 degree

Tip Speed()

Cp(, ) For =
0 deg

0.5

0.035

2.5

0.10

4.0

0.13

5.84

0.2413

6.96

0.3311

7.92

0.3925

8.6

0.4307

9.59

0.46

11.75

0.488 - CP-MAX

12.35

0.4855

13.56

0.4706

15.71

0.4211

17.61

0.2942

20

0.1011

21

-0.05

22

-0.1

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Cp

0.2

0.1

0
0

10

-0.1

-0.2
Lam da

15

20

25

## Design of Induction Generator

Design of Induction Generator

## Induction Generator Data:

Induction Generator:

## Output Current , Rotor Speed ,

Electromagnetic Torque:

## Design of three phase rectifier:

Inside Rectifier:

current:

## Design of Three phase inverter:

Inside Inverter :

Pulses:

## Inverter Phase Voltage(Van,Vbn,Vcn) and Load

Current (Ia,Ib,Ic):

Contd

Contd..

## Design of PID Controller

PID Controller designing can be done by Ziegler Nichol Method. Following Steps
are taken for designing.
At Controller, select P - Controller (set derivative and integral terms to zero).
Tune P Controller from minimum until controlled variable encounters sustain oscillations.
Take down the final P value as ultimate gain, K and find the time period for one oscillation as ultimate
time period T.

PID Values:
Controller P

P only

0.5*K

PI

0.45*K

0.833*T

PID

0.6*K

0.5*T

0.125*T

Contd:

Contd.

Contd

## Speed above base speed:

References
[1] : Seul-Ki Kim and Eung-Sang Kim, PSCAD/EMTDC- Based Modelling and Analysis of a Gearless Variable Speed
Wind Turbine, IEEE Trans. On Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2007.
[2] : J. G. Slootweg, S. W. H. de Haan, H. Polinder and W. L. Kling, "General Model for Representing Variable Speed
Wind, Turbines in Power System Dynamics Simulations, "IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, VOL. 18, NO. 1, February
2003.
[3] : Narayan Prasad Gupta, Preeti Gupta and Dr. Deepika Masand , Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Active
Power Filter for A DFIG Based Wind Energy Conversion System, Nirma University International Conference On
Engineering , Dec 2012.
[4] : Yuya Izumi, Alok Pratap, Kosuke Uchida, Akie Uehara, Tomonobu Senjyuand, and Atsushi Yona , A Control
Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a PMSG-Based WECS using Online Parameter Identification of Wind
Turbine, IEEE PEDS, Dec 2011.
[5] : Masaaki Sakui and Hiroshi Fujita, An Analytical Method for Calculating Harmonic Currents of a Three- phase
Diode-Bridge Rectifier with dc Filter,IEEE Trans.On Power Electronics, VOL. 9, NO. 6, November, 1994.
[6] : Byoung-Kuk Lee, Mehrdad Ehsani, A Simplified Functional Simulation Model for Three-Phase Voltage-Source
Inverter Using Switching Function Concept , IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, VOL. 48, NO. 2, April 2001.
[7] : P. M. Anderson,Anjan Bose ,"STABILITY SIMULATION OF WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS,"IEEE Transactions on
Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, No. 12, December 1983.
[8] : Chee Mun Ong Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK West Lafayette
,Indiana , Purdue University , pp. 167 243 .

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