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Bio-Medical Instrumentation

Sources

Bio Chemical

Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Nerves

Measurement Systems

Bio-Chemical
Energy to activate body
With Intake of
Food
Water
air
Support Messenger agent material for
growth
repair of parts of body

Cardiovascular

Closed Hydraulic system

Four Valves Pump Heart connected to flexible/elastic tubing


Blood Vessels
Function
Transportation of Oxygen , Co2
Heart drives blood 72 times/hr
Activities monitored by Electro - cardiography

Respiratory
Pneumatic system
Air pump Diaphragm create
+ve and ve pressure in
sealed chamber Thoractic
cavity
Cause air to be sucked and
forced out
Oxygen is taken into blood
and Co2 is transferred from
blood to air

Nervous system

Communication network

Brain is Central information processor


Memory
Computational
Decision making
I/O Channel

Central Part--

Peripheral part- Nerves and group of nerves

Encephalon and Spinal cord

Brain

Cerebrum responsible for

hearing
sight
touch
Volume muscle control
Cerebellum

Intercept sensors
Motor nerves
Smooth out , avoid jerking motions

Bio-Medical Instrumentation
Involves Study of
Action Potential
Bio- Potential electrodes
Recording Systems
ECG,EEG,EMG
Exploratory Systems
X-Rays Machines, Ct Scanners, MRI and Ultrasonic Imaging
Systems

Nervous System

The brain communicates with the rest of the


body through the spinal cord and the nerves.

Brain

Each nerve is a bundle of hundreds or


thousands of neurons (nerve cells).
The spinal cord runs down a tunnel of holes
in your backbone or spine.
The cord is a thick bundle of nerves,
connecting your brain to the rest of your body.

Spinal Cord

Nervous System

The nervous system is made up of nerve


cells or neurons that are "wired" together
throughout the body. Neurons carry messages
in the form of an electrical impulses. The
messages move from one neuron to
another to keep the body functioning.

The axon of one neuron doesn't touch the


dendrites of the next. Nerve signals have to
jump across a tiny gap. To get across the
gap they have to change from electrical
signals into chemical signals then back into
electrical signals.

Action Potentials

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Resting Cell Membrane Potential

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Membrane Potential
The potential difference (70 mV) across the membrane of a
resting neuron
It is generated by different concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl, and
protein anions (A)
Ionic differences are the consequence of:
Differential permeability of the membrane to Na+ and K+

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Electrical Conditions of a Polarized Sarcolemma

The outside (extracellular) face is positive, while the inside


face is negative
This difference in charge is the resting membrane potential
The predominant extracellular ion is Na+
The predominant intracellular ion is K+
The sarcolemma is relatively impermeable to both ions
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Membrane Potential Signals

Used to integrate, send, and receive information


Membrane potential changes are produced by:
Changes in membrane permeability to ions
Alterations of ion concentrations across the
membrane

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Depolarization

Initially, this is a local electrical event called end


plate potential
Later, it ignites an action potential that spreads in all
directions across the sarcolemma
Threshold critical level of stimulus

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Action Potential

A transient depolarization event that includes


polarity reversal of a sarcolemma (or nerve cell
membrane) and the propagation of an action
potential along the membrane

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Depolarization and Generation of the Action Potential

Application of voltage causes a patch of the sarcolemma


to become permeable to Na+ (sodium channels open)
Na+ enters the cell, and the resting potential is decreased
(depolarization occurs)
If the stimulus is strong enough, an action potential is
initiated
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Propagation of the Action Potential

Polarity reversal of the initial patch of sarcolemma changes the


permeability of the adjacent patch
Voltage-regulated Na+ channels now open in the adjacent patch causing
it to depolarize
Thus, the action potential travels rapidly along the sarcolemma
Once initiated, the action potential is unstoppable, and ultimately
results in the contraction of a muscle

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Role of the Sodium-Potassium Pump

Repolarization
Restores the resting electrical conditions of the
neuron
Does not restore the resting ionic conditions

Ionic redistribution back to resting conditions is


restored by the sodium-potassium pump
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Repolarization

Immediately after the depolarization wave passes, the sarcolemma


permeability changes
Na+ channels close and K+ channels open
K+ diffuses from the cell, restoring the electrical polarity of the
sarcolemma
Repolarization occurs in the same direction as depolarization, and
must occur before the muscle can be stimulated again
The ionic concentration of the resting state is restored by the
Na+-K+ pump
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Hyperpolarization

Occurs when membrane potential increases


Inside of membrane becomes more negative

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Phases of the Action Potential

1 resting state
2 depolarization
phase
3 repolarization
phase
4-- hyperpolarization
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Absolute Refractory Period


Time from the opening of the Na+ activation gates until the
closing of inactivation gates
The absolute refractory period:
Prevents the neuron from generating an action potential
Ensures that each action potential is separate
Enforces one-way transmission of nerve impulses

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Relative Refractory Period


The interval following the absolute refractory period when:
Sodium gates are closed
Potassium gates are open
Repolarization is occurring

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Action Potential

Membrane potential propagation

Action Potential

1 ms

Repolarisation

150 to 300ms

Muscle twitch

10 ms after repolarisation

Graded potentials

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Graded Potentials

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Graded Potential
Short-lived, local changes
in membrane potential
Decrease in intensity with
distance
Their magnitude varies
directly with the strength of
the stimulus
Sufficiently strong graded
potentials can initiate
action potentials

Action Potential
Action potentials are only
generated by muscle cells
and neurons
They do not decrease in
strength over distance
They are the principal
means of neural
communication
An action potential in the
axon of a neuron is a nerve
impulse
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What if ..?

1. The amount of extracellular K+ were below


normal?
2. Opening of the voltage-gated sodium channels
were prevented?

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Extracellular K+ were below normal?

Stronger tendency of K+ to diffuse out


Therefore more difficult to reach threshold and
action potential
Signs and symptoms = muscle weakness, sluggish
reflexes,
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Extracellular Na were below normal

.
Some of the Na channels which are normally closed
will remain open
Easier to reach threshold and action potential
Signs and Symptoms nervousness, muscle spasms
tetany.
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Bio-potential Electrodes

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