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# PHYSICS DEPARTEMENT OF

FMIPA UNM

MULTIVIBRATOR
ASTABLE

ICP PHYSICS 12

ABOUT ME
NAME
: DWI MARYANTI PUTRI
NICK NAME: PUTE
BIRTH DATE : 20th JANUARY 1996
ADDRESS : JL. BORONG RAYA
FROM
: SENGKANG
E-MAIL : dwimaryantiputri@gmail.com
PHONE

: 085366284166

INTRODOCTION

## In digital systems, timing is very considered.

Multivibrator is a circuit that can generate a continuous
signal, which is used as a timer of digital sequential
circuits. With the input clock generated by a
multivibrator, series such as counters, shift registers
and memory to perform its function properly. Based on
the shape of the output signal is generated, there are
three kinds of multivibrator: Multivibrator bistable,
Multivibrator astable, Multivibrator monostable .

PROBLEM STATEMENT

1. Relationship
pulse
frequency
generated from t1 (time on red light)
and t2 (time on white lights)?
2. How to compare the character of
some types of capacitor?

PURPOSES

## 1. Students are expected to find

relationships
frequency
pulses
generated from t1 (times on red light)
and t2 (times on white lights)
2. Students are expected to compare
the character of some kind of
capacitor

THEORY
Multivibrator is a cluster that
emit a beam or pulse shape
voltage. Actually multivibrator
amplifier
transistor
is
connected to two levels where
the output from the last level of
the amplifier is connected to
the first, so that both transistors
will mutually feedback. Astable
multivibrator is one type of
multivibrator which shook free
(free running) and ignited
(triggering). (Anonim b, 2014)

## Charging time (high output):

t1 = 0.693 (RA + RB) C
And release time (low output):
t2 = 0.693 (RB) C
Total period:
T = t1 + t2 = 0.693 (RA + 2RB) C

EXPERIMENT METHODS

Experiments have been done by using a flipflop circuit (astable multivibrator), which
makes the flip-flop 2 transistor has two
conditions interchangeably between cut-off
and saturation are on the second RC circuit
transistor.

APPARATUS
Flip-flop
circuit: 1
piece
The capacitor (100 F,
470 F, 47 F): 6 pieces

The
connecting
cable: 6 pieces

HP: 2 pieces

## Power supply: 1 piece

VARIABLE IDENTIFICATION

a. Changed
variables
:Capacitance
capasitor (C) in units of microfarad (F).
b. Response variables: time (t) in the
second unit.
c. Control variables: the resistor (R1, R2) in
units of ohms () and input voltage (V i)
(volt)

DEFENITION OPERATIONAL
VARIABLE

## a. The capasitance capacitor C is a variable that

is manipulated by replacing capacitors used
1000 F, 470 F, 220 V, 100 F, and 47 F.
b. T the time it takes each LED during one
oscillation at the right time and the right will be
extinguished flaming (t1 and t2).
c. Resistance resistor (R1, R2) is a variable control
used to inhibit the amount of charge that goes
to the circuit, the resistor used is 10 k.

WORK PROCEDURES

## Ensuring that the tools used in the lab are all in

good condition.
Connect the capacitor 1 with a capacitance of
100 F in the circuit, and then turn on the flipflop and observe the indicator light by calculating
the time it takes good at the right time and the
right will light would die each 20 data.
Repeating activities 2 with different capacitance
capacitors.

WORK PROCEDURES

## After that, connect the circuit with an oscilloscope to

see the waves generated and viewed amplitude wave
Noting the observations in the table below.

EXPERIMENT RESULTS

SEE MORE

DATA ANALYSIS

SEE MORE

DISCUSSIONS
In this experiment used three types of capacitor which
each frequency is calculated, based on the theory, the
frequency is 0.15 F to 470 Hz, 100 Hz was 0.72 F, and
47 F is 1.54 Hz frequency while based practices for
capacitors to 470 F capacitor is 0.18 Hz red LED with
23.56% diff percent and 0.18 percent white LEDs with a
big diff 24%, to 0.84 F capacitor 100 Hz LED red with
12.17% diff percent and 0 , 81 white LEDs with a large
percent of diff 11.44%, and to 47 F capacitor is 2.6 Hz
red LED diff with 5.52% percent and 2.56 percent with a
large green LED 1.94% diff.

DISCUSSIONS

## In the measurement of smaller percent diff

obtained the more accurate the data obtained,
as mentioned earlier above for the capacitor 470
F percent diff very large, this is due to the
difficulty set time is needed for the LEDs do one
oscillation, since the turn of the flame LED bias
hardly observed, therefore praktikan difficult to
determine when the stopwatch should be
stopped.

CONCLUSIONS

1. Frequency
pulses
are
generated
consisting of t1 and t2 whose condition of
each other.
2. The greater the value of the capacitors
used the longer time is needed LED to
light up or go out back.

REFERENCES
Anonim a
http://fendyhananta.wordpress.com/2012/12/05/ast
able-multivibrator-pengendali-sinyal-digital/
Anonim b
http://elektronika-dasar.web.id/teori-elektronika/as
tabil-multivibrator/
Ahmad Jayadin.2007. Elektronika Dasar.
Jakarta.
Malvino. A.P . 2003. Prinsip-Prinsip Elektronika,
Buku 1. Jakarta : Salemba Teknika.

THANKS FOR
ATTENTION