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Design of LVDC
Distribution Network
PROJECT ADVISOR:
A/P Nusrat Hussain

GROUP
MEMBERS:
Ahmad Touqir
Zaid M. Gorsi
M. Kashif Hameed

Project Title
To Design, Fabricate and Analyze a Laboratory Trainer for
Radial and Ring Main Low Voltage DC (LVDC) Distribution
System with Associated Protections

Problem Statement
Inefficient LVAC distribution schemes
Better Alternative to LVAC
Upcoming Major Distribution Scheme
Unavailability of Distribution Laboratory Equipment

Aim of the Project


o Study of Advanced LVDC Distribution Systems
o Construct Lab Modules
o Prepare Lab Manuals

Application
o Training Module: Effective part of learning and
understanding of practical systems

o Basic demonstration of core aspects of novel DC distribution


networks

o The DC Systems:
HV

1500KV-300KV

MV

300KV-1500V

LV

<1500V

ULV

up to 120V

o 740VDC Over Traditional 400VAC


o Successful Implementations
Finland and Europe

Why LVDC?

o High Power Supply Capacity


AC (RMS), DC(Peak)

o Higher Energy Transmission

Efficiency
14.90% Increased

o Longer Transmission
Distance
4 to 16 times

o Lower Line Losses

Lack of skin and proximity


effects
Reduced magnetic fields
No di-electric and thermal
losses
Small feeder losses (15-50%
less)

o Adaptation of existing AC
cables
More power capability

o Easier Coupling of Multiple

Sources
No frequency Synchronization

o Cost efficiency
Smaller cable cross-sections (No
thermal/dielectric losses)
Reduced LV transformers (1
replaces 4)
Elimination of conversion losses
(7-15% eliminated)

o Not as hazardous as AC
No Involuntary Muscle
Contractions

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Project Plan Summary

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Team Work
Ahmad Touqir

Zaid M Gorsi

Research

Module Fabrication

Designing

Market Survey And

Software
Simulations

Purchasing
o

Wiring

Mechanical Work

Layout design

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Muhammad Kashif Hameed


o Testing And Trouble-Shooting
o Documentation
o Component Selection and BOM

Mutual Tasks
o Hardware Assembling
o Literature Review
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Approach
Suggested Modules

o LVDC Distribution Schemes

o LVDC Distribution System

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Design Problem
Formulation

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Suggested
Design Layout

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Module 01 : Distribution Schemes

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Distribution Schemes
o Distribution Schemes
Radial
Ring Main

Interconnected

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Logic Design
CB 01

CB 02

CB 03

Radial

Ring
Main

Interconn
ected

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y1 = ABC+ABC
Y2 = ABC
Y3

ABC+ABC+ABC+AB
C

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Logic Implementation

Digital Logic

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Logic Implementation

Relay Logic

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Modules
Wiring
Diagram

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Final Relay
Logic Circuit

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Final Fabricated Module

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Module 02: LVDC Distribution


System

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Integral Units
o Transformer
o Rectifier
o Inverter
o Buck Regulator
o Capacitor bank
o Protections

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Transformer
We updated our transformer from 10VAC / 4A to 12VAC / 10A as
the rectifier required 10A under loaded conditions from both DC
regulator and Inverter.

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V in

220 VAC

V out

12 VAC

I max

10 A

Nominal Power

120 W

Connection

Single Phase

Ratio

22:1

Type

Step Down

% Regulation

10
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Rectifier
o We updated our rectifier capacity from 1.4 A to 10 A to meet
the power requirements, resulting in increase of power from
80W to 120W.

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Schematic Diagram

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V in

12 VAC

V out

12 VDC

I max

10 A

Nominal Power

120 W

Distortion

+10 % to -20 %

Variation

-30 %

Short Circuit Capacity

30 A

Temperature

Ambient

Filtering Capacitor

43000uF

Ripple Voltage

24.818 V

Reactive Power Supply Capacitor

0.54uF
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Inverter
o DC-AC Conversion
o Parts
Switching
PWM Generation

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Switching
Switching is being performed by a combination
of:

HY1906 P-Channel (Hi-side)

F-cell (SVF740T) N-Channel (Low-side)

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PWM Generation

TL494C (For P-Type Mosfets)


KA7500BS (for N-Type Mosfets)

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V in

12 VDC

V out

220 VAC

I max

2A

Nominal Power

500 W

Short Circuit Capacity

2.2 A

Frequency

50 Hz

Variation

None

Modulation

SPWM

THD

None

Filter Capacitor

47 uF

Reactive Power Supply Capacitor

14.52 uF

Switch

N, P Mosfets
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Buck Regulator
o We decided to increase the rating of our DC regulator from 1.5 A
to 5 A and increasing its power delivering capacity from 22W to
75W.

Schematic Diagram
R2
(Ohm)

O/P
(V)

750

5.16

820

5.52

910

5.99

1000

6.46

1100

6.98

1200

7.50

1300

8.02

1500

9.06

1600

9.58

1800

10.63

2000

11.67

2200

12.71

2300

13.23

2500

14.27
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V in

12 V

V out

5 15 V

I max

5A

Nominal Power

75 W

Buck IC

LM 317 T

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44

Rectifier End Capacitor


Required Ripple voltage < 100mV
Measured Ripple Voltage = 24.818 V
Maximum Load Current = 10 A
Ripple Voltage (V)= 10x(mA) / Capacitor(uF)
Filtering Capacitance C = 43000uF

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Inverter End Capacitor

1st Harmonic = 1.1 A

Harmonic Capacitance = 47uF , 400V

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Reactive Power Supply


Required Values:
Rectifier End = 30uF/kW
Inverter End = 44uF/kW
DC end : 18W , AC End : 330W
Rectifier End capacitor = 0.54uF
Inverter End Capacitor = 14.52uF
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Load Design
DC Load

AC Load
Power

100 W

Power

5W

Current

0.45 A

Current

1A

Voltage

220 V

Voltage

5V
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Final Fabricated Module

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Protections
Over current protection (Fuses)
Short circuit protection (MCCBs)
Kiln Paint Insulation

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Health and Safety


OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
1910.302(b)(1) - Requirements applicable to all electric
Installations
1910.304(a)

- Use and Application of Grounding

conductors

1910.304(b)(5) - Chord Connections


1910.306(h) (4) - Power supply circuits for portable electric
equipment
1910.306(h) (5) - Fixed and portable electric

equipment
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Questions
and
Answers
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