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# Caraga State University

## Theory of Errors and Adjustments

Lecture 1

Broddett B. Abatayo, GE
Lecturer

Major Exams--------50%
Quizzes--------------20%
Assignments--------10%
Participation---------10%
Attendance----------10%
100%
Passing rate------------60%

Conversion
1 tally = 10 pins
Metric System:
1 pin = 1 tapelength
English System
1 perch = 1 rod= 16.5 ft
1 vara = 33 inches

Pace Factor
Pace Length of a step
in walking; maybe
measured from toe to toe,
or heel to heel
Stride Equivalent to two
paces or a double step
Pace Factor = _distance_
ave. # of paces

Prob 1
1. A line was measured to have
5 tallies, 6 pins, and 63.5
links. How long is the line in
feet?
2. A line was measured with a
50 m tape. There were 5
tallies, 8 pins, and the
distance from the last pin to
the end line was 2.25 m. Find
the length of the line in
meters.
3. A distance was measured
and was recorded to have a
value equivalent to 8
perches, 6 rods, and 45
varas. Compute the total
distance in meters.
Ans. 1.) 5,663.5 ft
2.) 2,902.25 m
3.) 108.12 m

Prob 2
A line 100 m long was paced by
a surveyor for four times with
the following data: 142, 145,
145.5 and 146. Another line
was paced four times again
with the following results: 893,
893.5, 891, and 895.5.
1. Determine the pace factor
2. Determine the average number
of paces for the new line
3. Determine the distance of the
new line

2.) 893.25 paces
3.) 617.236 m

## Errors and Mistakes

Error the difference between the true
and measured value of a quantity.
Mistakes inaccuracies in measurements
which occur because some aspect of
surveying works were done with
carelessness, poor judgment, improper
execution

Statistical Formulas
A. Probable Error of Single
Observations, E

V 2
E 0.6745
n 1
B. Probable Error of the Mean,
Em
V 2
Em 0.6745
n(n 1)

V 2
S .D.
n 1

## D. Standard Error, S.E.

V 2
S .E.
n(n 1)
E. Precision

Em
__

Where;
V=xx
x = observed/measured value of a
quantity
x = mean value
n = number of measurements

## Prob. 3 The following data shows the

difference in elevation between A
and B.
Trial No.

Diff. in Elevation

520.14

520.20

520.18

520.24

## 1. Determine the most probable

difference in elevation?
2.The standard deviation?
3. The probable error of the mean?
4. The standard error?
5. And the precision?
Ans. 1.) 520.19
2.) 0.04
3.) 0.014
4.) 0.02
5.) 1/37,048

## Using fx-991 es plus

1.) Press ON MODE 3 1
3 Stat mode
1 Single variable x
Input 520.14 = 520.20 = 520.18 =
520.24 =
Press AC SHIFT 1 4 2 =
Ans. X = 520.19
2.) Press SHIFT 1 4 4 =
Ans. sx = 0.04163331999
3.) Press 0.6745 SHIFT 1 4 4
SHIFT 1 4 1 ) =
Ans. 0.6745sx(n) = 0.01404083717
4.) Press SHIFT144 SHIFT 141) =
Ans. sx(n) = 0.02081665999
5.) Press 0.6745 SHIFT 1 4 4
SHIFT 1 4 1 ) SHIFT 1 4 2 =
Ans. 0.6745sx(n)x= 2.6991x10^-5
Press X=
Ans = 37048 (denominator)

Measurements

Prob 4

## The following data shows the

difference in elevation between A
and B.

## The weight is directly

proportional to the number of
observations or
measurements.
The weight is inversely
proportional to the square of
the probable errors.
The weight is inversely
proportional to the distance.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Trial No.

Diff. in
Elevation

No. of
Measurements

520.14

520.20

520.18

520.24

## Determine the most probable

difference in elevation?
The standard deviation?
The probable error of the mean?
The standard error?
And the precision?

2.) 0.03
3.) 0.005
4.) 0.0076
5.) 1/101,375

## Using fx-991 es plus

1.) Press ON
Press MODE 3 1
3 Statistic mode
1 Single variable x
To change set up:
Press SHIFT MODE DOWN 4 1
4 Stat mode set up
1 Frequency(weight) turn on
Input 520.14 = 520.20 = 520.18 =
520.24 = RIGHT DOWN
1= 3= 6= 8=
Press AC
Press SHIFT 1 4 2 =
Ans. X = 520.2077778

## Using fx-991 es plus

2.) Press SHIFT 1 4 4 =
Ans. sx = 0.03227739248
3.) Press 0.6745 SHIFT 1 4 4
SHIFT 1 4 1 ) =
Ans. 0.6745sx(n) = 0.005131497
4.) Press SHIFT144 SHIFT 141) =
Ans. sx(n) = 0.007607854
5.) Press 0.6745 SHIFT 1 4 4
SHIFT 1 4 1 ) SHIFT 1 4 2 =
Ans. 0.6745sx(n)x= 9.8643x10^-6
Press X=
Ans = 101375.427 (denominator)

QUIZ 1
cross wise
1.) Lines of levels between B and C
are run over four different routes.
B is at elevation 825m, and is
higher than C.

## 2.) From the measured values of

distance AB, the following trials were
recorded.
Trial
No.

Distance (m)

120.68

120.84

Route
No.

Distance
(km)

Diff. in
Elevation(m)

0.86

120.76

0.69

120.64

0.75

1.02

## a. Determine the most probable

difference in elevation.
b. Most probable elevation of C.
Ans. a.) 0.826m
b.) 824.174m

## a.Determine the Most Probable Dist.?

b.Probable Error of the Mean ?
c.Standard Deviation?
d.Standard Error?
e.Precision?
Ans. a.) 120.73m
b.) 0.0299m
c.) 0.0877m
d.) 0.0443m
e.) 1/4036

QUIZ 1 solution(BESAVILLA)
Route

Dist. (km)

Route

Dist.

Weights

## Wt. x Diff. in Elev.

0.86

4(0.86) = 3.44

0.69

4/3

4/3(0.69) = 0.92

0.75

2(0.75) = 1.5

1.02

1(1.02) = 1.02

W = k/d
Wd = k
W1d1=k W2d2 = k W3d3 = k W4d4 = k
W1d1 = W2d2 = W3d3 = W4d4
W1d1= W4d4
W1(2)= W4(8)
Let W4 = 1
W1(2)= (1)(8)
W1 = 4
W2d2 = W4d4
W2(6) = (1)(8)
W2 = 4/3
W3d3 = W4d4
W3(4) = (1)(8)
W3 = 2

8.33

6.88

## most probable difference in elevation:

6.88 / 8.33 = 0.8256m.

## most probable elevation of C :

825 - 0.8256 = 824.174m.

QUIZ 1 solution
ON MODE 3 1 (stat mode)
SHIFT MODE DOWN 4 1 (freq on)
X

FREQ

0.86

0.69

0.75

1.02

## To find the most probable difference

in elevation or x:
AC SHIFT 1 4 2
To find the most probable elevation
of C:
185 - x

## Ex. From the measured values of

distance AB, the following trials were
recorded.
Trial

Dist. (m)

Probable Error

120.68

0.002

120.84

0.030

120.76

0.100

120.64

0.050

Determine the :
a. Most Probable Distance?
b. Probable Error of the Mean ?
c. Standard Deviation?
d. Standard Error?
e. Precision?
Ans. a.120.68m
b. 0.0000146m
c. 0.0108481m
d. 0.0000216m
e. 1/8273064m

Solution:
ON MODE 3 1 (stat mode)
SHIFT MODE DOWN 4 1 (freq on)
X

FREQ

120.68

1/(0.002)

120.84

1/(0.030)

120.76

1/(0.100)

120.64

1/(0.050)

a. AC SHIFT 1 4 2 =
b.0.6745 SHIFT 1 4 4 SHIFT 1 4 1 )=
c. SHIFT 1 4 4 =
d. SHIFT 1 4 4 SHIFT 1 4 1) =
e. 0.6745 SHIFT 1 4 4 SHIFT 1 4 1
) SHIFT 1 4 2 =

## Ex. The following interior angles of a

triangle traverse were measured with
the same precision:
Angle

Value
(degrees)

No. of
measurements

41

77

63

181
Determine the most prob. value of :
a. angle A.
b. angle B.
c. angle C.
Solution:
41 SHIFT RCL A
77 SHIFT RCL B
63 SHIFT RCL C
To determine the error:
180-(A+B+C)=
SHIFT RCL X

## To determine the total weight:

5 + 6 + 2 =
ans. 13/15
SHIFT RCL Y
The corrected angle A is
A + (5)X/Y =
ans. 40469.23"
The corrected angle B is
B + (6)X/Y =
ans. 764827.69"
The corrected angle A is
C + (2)X/Y =
ans. 622523.08"

ans. -1

40469.23+ 764827.69+
622523.08=180

## Ex. Determine the most probable value

of the angles about a given point.

5 + 6 + 2 =
Ans. 13/15
Y

Angle

Value
(degrees)

No. of
measurements

1301503"

1423721"

870718"

a. angle A.
b. angle B.
c. angle C.
Solution:
1301503" A
1423721 B
870718" C

360-(A+B+C)=
Ans. 18" X

## The corrected angle A is

A + (5)X/Y =
ans. 130157.15"
The corrected angle B is
B + (6)X/Y =
ans. 1423724.46"
The corrected angle A is
C + (2)X/Y =
ans. 870728.38"

QUIZ 2
sheet
(50 pts) The following measured interior
angles of a five sided figure, compute the
following:
Station

Angles

# of measure

110

98

108

120

105

## 1. Probable value of angle A?

a. 1094800
c.1094000"
b. 1095341.05 d. 1095633.33
2. Probable value of angle B?
a. 974800
c. 975031.58"
b. 974640
d. 975233.33"

## 3. Probable value of angle C?

a. 1075000
c. 1074233.33"
b. 1074800
d. 1074722.11
4. Probable value of angle D?
a. 1195320
c. 1194800"
b. 119413.16 d. 1194333.33
5. Probable value of angle D?
a. 1044800
c. 1044722.11"
b. 1045000
d. 1044446.68
Ans. 1. C
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. B

QUIZ 2 solution
110 A
98 B
108 C
120 D
105 E

Station

Angles

# of measure

110

98

108

120

105

## A+B+C+D+E = 541 > 540

540-(A+B+C+D+E)=-1 X
To determine the total weight:
2+3 +4 +6 +4 =3/2 Y
A + 2X/Y = 1094000"
B + 3X/Y = 974640
C + 4X/Y = 1075000
D + 6X/Y = 1195320
E + 4X/Y = 1045000

## Ex. A base line measured with an invar

tape, and with a steel tape as follows:

571.185

571.193

571.186

571.190

571.179

571.185

571.180

571.189

571.183

571.182

## 1. What is the S.D. for set II.

2. What is the MPV in set II.
3. What is the S.E. in set II.
4. What is the most probable value
of the two sets.
5. And what is the P.E. of the
general mean.

## MODE 3 2 (input all data)

X

571.185

571.193

571.186

571.190

571.179

571.185

571.180

571.189

571.183

571.182

Press AC
1.SHIFT 1 4 7 =
Ans. sy=0.004324...
2. SHIFT 1 4 5 =
Ans. y = 571.1878
3. SHIFT 1 4 7 SHIFT 1 4 1) =
Ans. sy(n) = 0.001933
4. (x + y)2 = 571.1852
5.