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GM

General Motors
Truck Group

Dimensional
Engineering
Seminar
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Variation Simulation Modeling

Date of Publication: January 12, 1998


Latest Revision Date: May 1, 1999

General Motors
Truck Group

GM

DIMENSIONAL
ENGINEERING
Based on the ASME Y14.5M1994 Dimensioning and
Tolerancing Standard
as amended by the GM Global
Addendum-1997

GM

General Motors
Truck Group

Copyright c 1998 by General Motors Corp.


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording
or otherwise without prior written permission of the author and publisher.

Seminar Agenda
Objectives
Dimensional Engineering Concept
ASME Y14.5M-1994 and GM Global Addendum
Video - Introduction to GD&T
The Language of GD&T
Why Use GD&T ?
Engineering Drawings - General Review
Basic Rules and Definitions
Datum Function & Datum Reference Frames
Datum Planes, Features and Simulators
Datum Target Areas, Lines, Points
and Partial Datum Surfaces
Feature Control Frame Elements
Variation Simulation Modeling (VSM)
Tolerances of Form
Tolerances of Orientation
Tolerances of Runout
Tolerances of Profile
Tolerances of Location

Course Objectives

Develop an awareness of Dimensional Engineering


concepts and explain how the techniques are used to
understand, control, and help reduce variation in the
overall vehicle build process.
Introduction to the Build Tolerance Procedure.
Provide an overview of the Variation Simulation
Modeling (VSM) process and how it is used to
predict variation in the vehicle.
Provide an introduction to Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing (GD&T), the ASME Y14.5M-1994
Standard including the GM Global Addendum and
how the concepts, symbols and terms of GD&T are
used in the engineering process.

Dimensional Engineering
Concept

Dimensional Engineering is a sub-process within the


overall vehicle development cycle, key to achieving
robust designs and controlling product definition.
The concept starts with bubble-up and continues
through the entire Four Phase Vehicle Development
Process. The Team Concept is an integral part of
the GMTG Dimensional Engineering approach.

What is GD&T?
Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing is an international graphic
engineering language designed to allow designers and engineers
to say exactly what they mean on engineering drawings. The
concepts, symbols and mathematical structure of GD&T provide a
precise and logical way to describe the manufacturing tolerance
zones that are applied to individual features or groups of features
on parts or assemblies.

What is ASME Y14.5M-1994?


The ASME Y14.5M-1994 is the latest revised issue of the common
Industrial Standard on dimensioning and tolerancing. The Standard
establishes uniform practices for the dimensioning and tolerancing
of engineering drawings and related documents. All GD&T rules,
concepts, and practices are contained within the current Y14.5M
Standard and the GM Global Addendum.

Why a GM Global Addendum?


The GM Global Addendum was written to address and/or clarify
concepts and practices described within the ASME Y14.5M-1994
Standard. Sections 1-6 of the addendum represent the consensus
of the US Car GD&T Team and have been adopted by GM, Ford,
and Chrysler. Sections 7&8 apply specifically to General Motors.
The addendum replaces section A91 of the current GM Drafting
Standard.

The goal of GD&T is to improve communication !!

The Language of Geometric


Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Geometric Characteristic Symbols
FEATURES

TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC

SYMBOL

Straightness
For
Individual
Features

Form

Flatness
Circularity (roundness)
Cylindricity

For
Individual
or Related
Features

Profile

Profile of a Line
Profile of a Surface
Angularity

Orientation

Perpendicularity
Parallelism

For
Related
Features

Position
Location

Concentricity
Symmetry
Circular Runout

Runout

Total Runout

* Runout symbols may be filled or not filled

*
*

The Language of Geometric


Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Additional Symbols and Modifiers
TERM

SYMBOL

Maximum Material Condition

Least Material Condition

Regardless of Feature Size

**

**

Free State Datum Modifier

Projected Tolerance Zone

Tangent Plane Modifier

Diameter Symbol
All Around Symbol

Between Symbol

Radius
Controlled Radius

R
CR
A *

Datum Feature Symbol


Basic Dimension (or Angle)

234.5

Statistical Tolerance Symbol

ST

* Symbols may be filled or not filled


**

The RFS symbol is no longer used per ASME Y14.5M-1994. It is applicable only on
drawings using earlier standards.

The Language of Geometric


Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Basic Feature Control Frame
Datum Reference Frame

1 A BC
Tolerance
Value
Tertiary
Primary
Geometric
Datum
Datum
Characteristic
Secondary
Symbol
Datum
Each feature control frame contains information identifying a specific feature
characteristic to be controlled (geometric characteristic symbol),the limits of
error or variation allowed for that characteristic (tolerance value), the point(s)
or surfaces from which the characteristic is to be measured (datum reference
frame), and the theoretical shape of the tolerance zone that applies (diameter
symbol and material condition modifiers). Feature control frame are the basic
building blocks of the GD&T language. The ability to accurately interpret the
feature control frame is fundamental to understanding other GD&T concepts.

The Language of Geometric


Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Feature Control Frame with Material
Condition Modifiers and Diameter Symbol
Tolerance Material
Condition Symbol
Diameter
Symbol

Datum Material
Condition Symbol

1M A BM C
As required, additional symbols are used along with the basic feature control
frame to identify specific geometric or dimensional requirements. The above
example shows a diameter symbol and two maximum material condition (MMC)
symbols that have been added to precisely describe the feature requirements.
The diameter symbol describes the cylindrical shape of the feature tolerance
zone while the maximum material condition symbols indicate both the feature
and secondary datum material condition in which the stated tolerance applies.

Why Use GD&T ?


Manufacturing tolerances acknowledge the fact that dimensional
perfection is impossible to achieve. More importantly, from an
economic perspective, perfection may be an expensive and
inappropriate goal. Unnecessarily small tolerances do not improve
quality or performance, they do increase costs. As manufacturing
tolerances shrink, production and inspection costs increase
rapidly. Properly specified tolerances minimize manufacturing and
assembly costs, ensure product performance, and provide a means
of assessing and maintaining process controls.

To Maximize Producibility

Parts designed using GD&T methods have maximized producibility because all
available manufacturing tolerance has been included.

To Improve Productivity

Using functional tolerancing techniques improves productivity by reducing the


potential for the rejection of functional parts.

Functional Performance

Properly applied GD&T assures assembly, interchangeability, and functional


performance of all mating details.

Clear Communication

Effective GD&T identifies important dimensional relationships and offers clear


communication of functional design requirements.

Uniform Interpretation

Uniform, consistent interpretation of design requirements saves time and money by


avoiding errors and controversies resulting from misconceptions and
misunderstandings.

Coordinated Datum Locations

GD&T provides a method of maintaining coordination between functional design


features, manufacturing processes & inspection practices (coordinated datum
locations).

Basic
Rules and
Definitions

Limits of Size

Unless otherwise specified, the limits of size of a


feature prescribe the extent within which
variations of geometric form as well as size are
allowed. This control applies solely to individual
features of size.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 2.7)

FEATURES OF SIZE: MUST


BE WITHIN THE SPECIFIED
LIMITS OF SIZE

Individual Feature of Size

Rule #1
Where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits of
size of an individual feature prescribe the extent to which
variations in its geometric form as well as size are
allowed.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 2.7.1)
In other words, features of size require:

PERFECT FORM AT MAXIMUM


MATERIAL CONDITION (MMC)

All Applicable
Geometric Tolerances

Rule #2
Regardless of Feature Size (RFS) applies, with respect to
the individual tolerance, datum reference or both, where
no modifying symbol is specified. Maximum Material
Condition (MMC) or Least Material Condition (LMC) must
be specified on the drawing where it is required
(ASME Y14.5-1994, 2.8a)

Notes:
The default condition described by Rule #2 applies only to drawings using the ASME
Y14.5M-1994 standard. Any drawing using an earlier standard will have a different default
condition.
Circular runout, total runout, concentricity, and symmetry can only be applied on an RFS
basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC.

Definition
Maximum Material Condition
The condition in which a feature of size contains
the maximum amount of material within the
stated limits of size -- for example, minimum
hole diameter or maximum shaft diameter
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.20)

M
WHEN THE PART WEIGHS THE MOST!
The Maximum Material Condition symbol can be used as a tolerance modifier and/or a datum
modifier for internal or external features of size. When the MMC symbol is applied as a tolerance
modifier, the specified tolerance value applies when the feature is at its extreme limit of size (min
hole, max shaft). When the MMC symbol is applied as a datum modifier, the datum is the axis or
center plane of the datum feature at its virtual size.

Maximum Material Condition


External Features of Size (Largest Size)
11.75 +/-0.25

MMC Size =

12
14.95
14.90

MMC Size =

14.95

Internal Features of Size (Smallest Size)


0

12 -0.25

MMC Size =

11.75
+0.1

15 0

MMC Size = 15

Definition
Least Material Condition
The condition in which a feature of size contains
the least amount of material within the stated
limits of size -- for example, maximum hole
diameter or minimum shaft diameter
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.19)

L
WHEN THE PART WEIGHS THE LEAST!
The Least Material Condition symbol can also be used as a tolerance modifier and/or a datum
modifier for internal or external features of size. When the LMC symbol is applied as a tolerance
modifier, the specified tolerance value applies when the feature is at its extreme limit of size (max
hole, min shaft). When the LMC symbol is applied as a datum modifier, the datum is the axis or
center plane of the datum feature at its LMC size.

Least Material Condition


External Features of Size (Smallest Size)
11.75 +/-0.25

LMC Size =

11.5
14.95
14.90

LMC Size =

14.9

Internal Features of Size (Largest Size)


0
12 -0.25

LMC Size =

12
15 +0.1
0

LMC Size = 15.1

Definition
Regardless of Feature Size
The term used to indicate that a geometric
tolerance or datum reference applies at any
increment of size of the feature within its size
tolerance.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.22)

*
S
*

The RFS symbol is no longer required to indicate regardless of


feature size conditions for features subject to variations in size
(See rule #2 ASME Y14.5M-1994). It is applicable only on drawings
using earlier standards.

Definition
Free State Condition
The term used to indicate that a geometric
tolerance or datum reference applies in its
FREE STATE or unrestrained condition.
(The use of the free state symbol as a datum condition modifier is
valid only when the datum default condition is restrained.)

F
When applied to geometric tolerances, the free state symbol
indicates that individual or related feature tolerance(s) must
be verified with the part in an unrestrained or unclamped
condition.
When used as a datum modifier, only those datum feature(s)
specifically identified as free state (including rests and
assists) shall be unrestrained or unclamped when verifying
individual or related feature tolerance(s).

Definition
Dimensions, Features
and Tolerances

Dimension

A numeric value expressed in appropriate units of measure and


used to define the size, location, geometric characteristic, or
surface texture of a part or part feature. (ASME Y14.5-1994, 1.3.8)

Feature
The general term applied to a physical portion of a part, such
as a surface, pin, tab, hole or slot. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.12)

Feature of size
One cylindrical or spherical surface, or set of two opposed
elements or opposed parallel surfaces associated with a size
dimension. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.17)

Tolerance
The total amount a specific dimension is permitted to vary. The
tolerance is the difference between the maximum and minimum
limits.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.31)

Tolerance-Bilateral
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from
the specified dimension.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.32)

Tolerance-Unilateral
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in one direction from
the specified dimension.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.34)

Definition
Basic Dimension
A numerical value used to describe the
theoretically exact size, profile, orientation or
location of a feature or datum target. It is the
basis from which permissible variations are
established by tolerances on other dimensions,
in notes or in feature control frames.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.9)

234.5
30
24

Basic Dimension
Basic Angle
Basic Diameter

Definition
Datums, Datum Targets,
Datum Features and Simulators
Datum
A theoretically exact point, axis, or plane derived from the
true geometric counterpart of a specified datum feature. A
datum is the origin from which the location or geometric
characteristics of features of a part are established.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.3)

Datum Feature
An actual feature of a part that is used to establish a
datum. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.4)

Datum Target
A specified point, line, or area on a part used to establish a
datum. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.7)

Datum Feature Simulator


A surface of adequately precise form contacting the datum
feature(s) and used to establish the simulated datum(s).
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.5)

Definition
Virtual Condition
A constant boundary generated by the collective
effects of a size features specified MMC or
LMC material condition and the geometric
tolerance for that material condition.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.37)

The calculated virtual condition boundary for a


feature is used to determine the worst case inner or
outer boundary for that feature. The virtual condition
values are used to evaluate assembly requirements
for mating parts and to establish sizes for functional
gaging elements.

Virtual Condition Boundary


Internal Feature (MMC Concept)
15 +/- 0.5
1M X Y Z

Z
XX

XX

As Shown on Drawing

Virtual Condition
Inner Boundary
Maximum Inscribed
Diameter

1 Positional
Tolerance Zone at
MMC

True (Basic)
Position of Hole

Boundary of MMC Hole


Shown at Extreme Limit

Other Possible
Extreme Locations
True (Basic)
Position of Hole

Calculating Virtual Condition

Axis Location of
MMC Hole Shown
at Extreme Limit

14.5 MMC Size of Feature (Minimum Size)


1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance
13.5

Virtual Condition Boundary

THE VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY OF AN INTERNAL FEATURE, SUCH


AS A HOLE, REPRESENTS THE LARGEST PERFECTLY LOCATED PIN THAT
WILL FIT INTO THE SMALLEST DIAMETER HOLE (MMC) AT THE EXTREME
GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE LIMIT.

Virtual Condition Boundary


External Feature (MMC Concept)
12 +/- 0.5
1M L M N

N
XX

XX

As Shown on Drawing

Virtual Condition
Outer Boundary
Minimum Circumscribed
Diameter

1 Positional
Tolerance Zone at
MMC

True (Basic)
Position of Feature
Other Possible
Extreme Locations
Boundary of MMC Feature
Shown at Extreme Limit

True (Basic)
Position of Feature

Calculating Virtual Condition

Axis Location of
MMC Feature Shown
at Extreme Limit

12.5 MMC Size of Feature (Maximum Size)


1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance
13.5

Virtual Condition Boundary

THE VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY OF AN EXTERNAL FEATURE, SUCH


AS A PIN, REPRESENTS THE SMALLEST PERFECTLY LOCATED HOLE THAT
WILL ACCEPT THE LARGEST DIAMETER PIN (MMC) AT THE EXTREME
GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE LIMIT.

Rules and Definitions Quiz


Questions #1-12 True or False

1.

Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance.

2.

The use of GD&T improves productivity.

3.

Size tolerances control both orientation and position.

4.

Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form.

5.

A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS.

6.

A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC.

7.

Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions.

8.

A surface on a part is considered a feature.

9.

Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions.

10.

A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance .

11.

A free state datum modifier applies to assists & rests.

12.

Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size.

Material Condition Quiz`


Fill in blanks

Internal Features

MMC

LMC

MMC

LMC

10.75 +0.25/- 0
23.45 +0.05/- 0.25
123. 50 +/- 0.1
.895
.890

External Features
10.75 +0/- 0.25
23.45 +0.05/- 0.25
123. 50 +/- 0.1
.890
.885

Calculate appropriate values

Blank Page

Datum
Function
and
Datum
Reference
Frames

Datum Requirements
Functional
Datums Should Be Consistent with Part Assembly Interfaces
Datum Features Should Minimize Assembly Variation
Datums Should Represent Actual Part Feature Relationships

Repeatable
Datum Features Must Be Dimensionally Stable
Datum Features Must Provide Secure, Repeatable Orientation
and Immobilization of a Part or Assembly as Required
Datums Planes Should Be Independent to Avoid Sensitivity

Coordinated
Datum Reference Frame Establishes a Common Basis for
Control and Measurement During All Process Phases of:
Manufacture
Inspection
Assembly
Datum Features Must Be Common and Coordinated With:
Stamping
Detail Gages
Assembly Tooling
Assembly Gages

Datum Feature
Selection and Coordination
Part features selected to establish datum reference planes on
sheet metal panels should be coordinated with tooling locators
(CDs) used during the assembly process and datum features
used to locate the panel during detail inspection.
When selecting datum features, careful consideration should be
given to the total number of datum target locations required to
physically stabilize part geometry. Assembly tooling fixtures are
often required to form and hold the nominal contours of flexible
sheet metal parts during welding operations. As a result, the
assembly process will frequently make use of more part locators
than would be appropriate for a detail inspection tool.
Although the coordination of datum features is recommended to
ensure quality vehicle assembly, it is important to recognize that
all tooling locators (CDs) should not necessarily be considered
datums. The quantity and location of datum targets appropriate
for each application is based heavily on engineering common
sense and experience.
Too many datum target areas can over constrain and distort
a panel. This could mask actual error and compromise the
integrity of inspection data. Too few and the part may not be
supported adequately, which can lead to poor or marginal
gage repeatability.

Six Degrees of Freedom

Y Axis
Linear

Z Axis
Rotational

X Axis
Linear

X Axis
Rotational

Y Axis
Rotational

Z Axis
Linear

Datum Reference Frame

TERTIARY
DATUM PLANE

SECONDARY
DATUM PLANE

90 o

90 o

90 o

PRIMARY DATUM PLANE

Datum Reference Frame

PART
PART

Fixed
FIRST DATUM PLANE

PRIMARY DATUM
SECOND DATUM PLANE

PART
PART

Fixed

SECONDARY DATUM

THIRD DATUM PLANE

PART
PART

Fixed

TERTIARY DATUM

Basic Datum Sequence

Datum Reference Frame


In this example, the first, or primary datum plane provides partial
constraint to the part and prevents free movement in one (1) linear
and two (2) rotational degrees of freedom. Primary planar datums
requires a minimum of three points of contact on a feature surface
to constrain part movement. However, the part surface may
actually contact the datum plane or the simulated datum surface in
an infinite number of places.

Free

Fixed
Free

Fixed
PART
PART
PART

Free

Free
Fixed
Fixed
Free
Fixed

FIRST
DATUM
PLANE

PRIMARY DATUM

Datum Reference Frame


The second, or secondary datum plane provides additional part
constraint and prevents free movement in one (1) additional linear
and one (1) rotational degree of freedom. Secondary planar datums
require a minimum of two points of contact on a feature surface to
constrain part movement. However, the part surface may actually
contact the datum plane or the simulated datum surface in an infinite
number of places.

Fixed
SECOND
DATUM
PLANE

Fixed

Fixed

PART
PART
PART

Fixed
Free

Free
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

SECONDARY DATUM

Datum Reference Frame


The third, or tertiary datum plane provides full part constraint and
prevents free movement along the one (1) remaining linear degree
of freedom. Tertiary planar datums require a minimum of one point
of contact on a feature surface to restrict the last degree of freedom.
However, the part surface may actually contact the datum plane or
the simulated datum surface in an infinite number of places.

Fixed
Fixed

THIRD DATUM
PLANE

PART
PART
PART

Fixed

Fixed

Fixed
Fixed

Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed

TERTIARY DATUM

Datum Planes, Features,


and Simulated Datums
Datum Feature
(Actual Surface on Part)

Part

(Workpiece)

Datum Plane

(True Geometric Counterpart of


Datum Feature)

Simulated Datum

(Surface on Gage or Fixture Locator)

Datum Feature Symbols

AB

Datum Feature Symbol -- Former Practice


(ANSI Y14.5M-1982 and earlier standards)

AB

A
Base (triangle) may
be filled or not filled

Datum Feature Symbol -- Current Standard


(ASME Y14.5M-1994 standard)

Datum Target Symbols


Datum Target
Number

Datum Target
Label

A1
Optional methods of specifying
shape and size of gaging element
(Datum Target Area)

25
25

A1

A1

General
Datum Target
Symbol

Circular
Datum Target
Area Symbol

Target area size


(where applicable)

Shape of gaging element


(where applicable)

Square
Datum Target
Area Symbol

12

A1
May be filled
or not filled

10 X 20

A1

Rectangular
Datum Target
Area Symbol

Datum Targets
12
A1

15

15

PARTIAL
SURFACE
CONTACT

PART

DATUM BLOCK

Method Showing Target Zone and Location

12

PARTIAL
SURFACE
CONTACT

A1

15

15

PART

DATUM BLOCK

Method Showing Target Location Only

Datum Target Area

Datum Targets

A1

120

A1

As Shown on Drawing
Means This:

PART

LINE
CONTACT

LOCATING PIN
Datum Target
Line

Datum Target Line

Datum Targets

A1

120
A1

25

As Shown on Drawing
Means This:

PART

POINT
CONTACT
LOCATING
PIN

Datum Target
Point

Datum Target Point

Datum Targets

A
50

As Shown on Drawing
Means This:
50

LENGTH OF
DATUM
CONTACT

TRUE GEOMETRIC
COUNTERPART OF
PARTIAL SURFACE

Partial Datum Surface

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1.

Datum target areas are theoretically exact.

2.

Datum features are imaginary.

3.

Primary datums have only three points of contact.

4.

The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D, F/A, & C/C.

5.

Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool.

6.

Datum simulators are used to represent datums.

7.

Datums are actual part features.

8.

All datum features must be dimensionally stable.

9.

Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom.

10.

Tertiary datums are not always required.

11.

All tooling locators (CDs) are used as datums.

12.

Datums should represent functional features.

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference


frame are called _______, _________, and ________.
2. An unrestrained part will exhibit _________and __________
degrees of freedom.

3. A planar primary datum plane will restrain _________ and


__________ degrees of freedom.
4. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain ___
degrees of freedom.

5. The primary, secondary and tertiary datum planes together will


restrain all ___ degrees of freedom.
6. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to ________
________ of a part in a gage or tool.
7. A datum must be __________, __________, and ___________.
8. A ______ _______ is an actual feature on a part.
9. A ______ is a theoretically exact point, axis or plane.
10. A _____ ________ is a precise surface used to establish a
simulated datum.

restrain movement five coordinated repeatable


tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational
three functional one datum simulator 1-linear
datum feature datum secondary 3-linear
six

Feature
Control
Frame
Elements

Feature Control Frame Elements

A
C

B
2.5 A-B C M D M

2.5 A-B C M D M
Multiple Datum
Features (Primary)

Feature Control Frame with Multiple


Datum Features (Shown as Primary)

Feature Control Frame Elements


0.5

A B

C
0.5

Datum Feature
Symbol

A B

Feature Control Frame

Combined Feature Control Frame


with Datum Feature Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements


B

20 minimum projected height


of tolerance zone *

0.5 diameter
tolerance zone *

5X M14X1-6H
0.5 M P 20 A B

A
M

* Projected tolerance zones lie entirely


outside the boundary of the part feature

Minimum Projected Height


of Tolerance Zone

0.5

M P

20 A B M

Projected Tolerance
Zone Symbol

Feature Control Frame with Projected


Tolerance Zone Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements


A
B

1 ABC

1 ABC
All Around Symbol

Feature Control Frame w/ All Around Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements

X
X

1 A BC
Y
Y

1ABC
Y

Between Symbol

Feature Control Frame w/ Between Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements

14.95 AVG
14.80

Free State Symbol

Feature Control Frame with Free State


Symbol (Used as a Tolerance Zone Modifier)

Feature Control Frame Elements

A1

0.5

A2

A-D

CM

B
A4

D1

A3

Note: In this example Datum target D1 is unrestrained

0.5

A-D

Free State Symbol


The freestate datum condition modifier can only be applied
when the specified drawing default condition is restrained

Feature Control Frame with Free State


Symbol (Used as a Datum Condition Modifier)

Feature Control Frame Elements

A1

2.5

A2

ST

ABM CM

B
A4

A3

2.5

ST

A B M CM

Statistical
Tolerance Symbol

Feature Control Frame w/ Symbol Indicating


the Tolerance was Statistically Determined

Feature Control Frame Elements


Two Geometric Characteristic
Symbols

2.5 A B C
0.5 A B
Two Single Segment Profile Control Frames

One Geometric Characteristic


Symbol

2.5 A B C
0.5 A B
One Composite Profile Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Elements


Two Geometric Characteristic
Symbols

1.5
0.2

M
M

A B C
A B

Two Single Segment True Position Control Frames

One Geometric Characteristic


Symbol

1.5
0.2

M
M

A B C
A B

One Composite True Position Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both
specified tolerance zones simultaneously

2.5 A B C
0.5

Feature Location & Orientation


to Datum features A, B & C
Feature Form Refinement Only
(No Datum Reference)

2.5 A B C
0.5 A

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to


Datum features B & C

2.5 A B C
0.5 A B

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to


Datum feature C only

2.5 A B C
0.5 A B C

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to


Datum features A, B & C

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to


Datum feature A only

Feature Location, Form & Orientation


to Datum features A & B

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to


Datum features A, B & C

When two single-segment feature control frames are applied to an individual


feature, the two segments cannot contain identical datum references. In this
case, the larger of the two tolerances is redundant and does not apply.

Two Single-Segment Profile Control Frames

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both
specified tolerance zones simultaneously

2.5 A B C
0.5
2.5 A B C
0.5 A

Feature Location & Orientation


to Datum features A, B & C
Feature Form Refinement Only (No
Datum Reference)

Feature Location Only to


Datum features A,B & C
Feature Form & Orientation
to Datum feature A only

Feature Locating
Reference

2.5 A B C
0.5 A B

Feature Location Only to


Datum features A,B & C
Feature Form & Orientation to
Datum features A, B & C
(when Datum B is a surface)

Feature Form &


Orientation Reference

2.5 A B C
0.5 A B C

Feature Location Only


to
Datum features A,B & C
Feature Form & Orientation to
Datum features A, B & C
(when Datum B is an axis)

When a composite feature control frame is applied to an individual feature,


the two segments can contain identical datum references. In this case, each
tolerance is applied to a different component of the composite requirement.

Composite Profile Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both
specified tolerance zones simultaneously

1.5 A B C
0.2
1.5 A B C
0.2 A
1.5 A B C
0.2 A B
1.5 A B C
0.2 A B C

Feature Location, Orientation &


Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum
features A, B & C
Coaxial Refinement Only (No
Datum Reference)

Feature Location & Orientation


to Datum features B & C
Feature-to-feature relationship
& Orientation refinement to
Datum feature A

Feature Location & Feature-to-feature


relationship to Datum feature C only
Feature Location, Orientation &
Feature-to-feature relationship to
Datum features A & B
Feature Location, Orientation &
Feature-to-feature relationship to
Datum features A, B & C
Feature Location, Orientation &
Feature-to-feature relationship to
Datum features A, B & C

When two single-segment feature control frames are applied to an individual


feature, the two segments cannot contain identical datum references. In this
case, the larger of the two tolerances is redundant and does not apply.

Two Single-Segment True Position Control Frames

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both
specified tolerance zones simultaneously

1.5 A B C
0.2
1.5 A B C
0.2 A

Pattern Location, Orientation &


Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum
features A, B & C
Coaxial Refinement Only
(No Datum Reference)

Pattern Location & Orientation to


Datum features B & C
Pattern Orientation & Feature-to-feature
relationship to Datum feature A

Pattern Locating Tolerance


Zone Framework (PLTZF)

1.5 A B C
0.2 A B

Pattern Location Only to


Datum features A, B & C
Pattern Orientation & Feature-to-feature
relationship to Datum features A, B & C
(when Datum B is a surface)

Feature Relating Tolerance


Zone Framework (FRTZF)

1.5 A B C
0.2 A B C

Pattern Location Only to


Datum features A, B & C
Pattern Orientation and Feature-tofeature relationship to Datum features A,
B & C (when Datum B is an axis)

When a composite feature control frame is applied to an individual feature,


the two segments can contain identical datum references. In this case, each
tolerance is applied to a different component of the composite requirement.

Composite True Position Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Review

Diameter
Symbol

Material
Modifier
(Tolerance)
Datum
Reference
Frame

1M A B C
Geometric
Characteristic
Symbol

Secondary
Datum

Tolerance

Projected
Tolerance
Symbol

0.5
Datum
Feature
Symbol

Minimum
Projected
Zone Height

20 A B M
Material
Modifier
(Datum)

Feature Control Frame Review

Composite
True Position
Symbol

Pattern Locating
Tolerance Zone

0.5
0.2

M
M

A B C
A B

Pattern Locating
Tolerance Zone
Framework (PLTZF)
Feature Relating
Tolerance Zone
Framework (FRTZF)

Feature Relating
Tolerance Zone

Composite
Profile Symbol
(Profile of a Surface)

Feature Profile
Locating
Tolerance

2.5 A B C
0.5 A B
Feature Profile
Form/Orientation
Tolerance

Feature Profile
Locating Datum
Reference
Feature Profile
Form/Orientation
Datum Reference

Notes

E
N
D

Seminar Agenda
Objectives
Dimensional Engineering Concept
ASME Y14.5M-1994 and GM Global Addendum
Video - Introduction to GD&T
The Language of GD&T
Why Use GD&T ?
Engineering Drawings - General Review
Basic Rules and Definitions
Datum Function & Datum Reference Frames
Datum Planes, Features and Simulators
Datum Target Areas, Lines, Points
and Partial Datum Surfaces
Feature Control Frame Elements
Tolerances of Form
Tolerances of Orientation
Tolerances of Runout
Tolerances of Profile
Tolerances of Location

Rules and Definitions Quiz


Questions #1-12 True or False

1.

Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance.

FALSE

2.

The use of GD&T improves productivity.

TRUE

3.

Size tolerances control both orientation and position.

FALSE

4.

Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form.

TRUE

5.

A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS.

TRUE

6.

A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC.

FALSE

7.

Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions.

FALSE

8.

A surface on a part is considered a feature.

TRUE

9.

Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions.

TRUE

10.

A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance.

FALSE

11.

A free state datum modifier applies to assists & rests.

TRUE

12.

Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size.

FALSE

Material Condition Quiz


Fill in blanks

Internal Features

MMC

LMC

10.75 +0.25/-0

10.75

11

23.45 +0.05/-0.25

23.20

23.50

123.40

123.60

0.890

0.895

External Features

MMC

LMC

10.75 +0/-0.25

10.75

10.50

23.45 +0.05/-0.25

23.50

23.20

123. 50 +/-0.1

123.60

123.40

123. 50 +/-0.1
0.895
0.890

0.890
0.885

0.890

0.885

Calculate appropriate values

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1.

Datum target areas are theoretically exact.

FALSE

2.

Datum features are imaginary.

FALSE

3.

Primary datums have only three points of contact.

FALSE

4.

The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D, F/A, & C/C.

FALSE

5.

Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool.

TRUE

6.

Datum simulators are used to represent datums.

TRUE

7.

Datums are actual part features.

FALSE

8.

All datum features must be dimensionally stable.

TRUE

9.

Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom.

TRUE

10.

Tertiary datums are not always required.

TRUE

11.

All tooling locators (CDs) are used as datums.

FALSE

12.

Datums should represent functional features.

TRUE

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference


frame are called primary, secondary, and tertiary.

2. An unrestrained part will exhibit 3-linear and 3-rotational degrees


of freedom.

3. A planar primary datum plane will restrain 1-linear and 2-rotational


degrees of freedom.

4. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five
degrees of freedom.

5. The primary, secondary and tertiary datum planes together will


restrain all six degrees of freedom.

6. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to restrain movement


of a part in a gage or tool.

7. A datum must be functional, repeatable, and coordinated.


8. A datum feature is an actual feature on a part.
9. A datum is a theoretically exact point, axis or plane.
10. A datum simulator is a precise surface used to establish a
simulated datum.

restrain movement five coordinated repeatable


tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational
three functional one datum simulator 1-linear
datum feature datum secondary 3-linear
six