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FINAL MASTERS PROJECT PRESENTATION

Development of Triple Band Inverted F-Antenna(PIFA) for


GSM 800MHz,DCS 1800 MHz and Bluetooth 2400MHz
Prepared by
MUKHTAR AHMED YASIN (GE130045)
Supervised by
DR. KHAIRUN NIDZAM BIN RAMLI
CHAIRMAN
PM. Dr. Mohammad Faiz Liew bin
Abdullah
PANELS
Dr. Zuhairiah bt Zainal Abidin
Dr. Mariyam Jamilah bt Homam

OUTLINE
1

Introduction

Objectives

Problem statement

Project scope

Methodology

Result and analysis

Conclusion and recommendation


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INTRODUCTION

Wireless performance is completely dependent on a high


performance antenna design and implementation.
Antenna used in mobile handheld devices can be one of the
following types:
Single band Antenna
Multiband Antenna
Reconfigurable antenna

Planar antennas are one of the multiband antennas that have


attractive features such as:

Broad operating bandwidth


Low profile
Light weight
Ease of integrations into arrays of RF circuits.

INTRODUCTION(Cont )

Planar Inverted-F Antennas (PIFAs) are resonant at a


quarter-wavelength and are widely used for mobile
phone applications and other communication devices.
PIFA antennas contain:

Ground plane
Shorting plate/pin
Feeding plate/pin
Radiating patch
Shorting plate

PIFA antenna configuration

INTRODUCTION(Cont )

In this project, a triple band operating PIFA antenna was


designed which covers frequency bands of GSM
900MHz, DCS 1800MHz and Bluetooth 2400MHz.
In order to obtain the triple band operation, two slots of
L-shaped will be created on the radiating patch of the
antenna.
A parametric study will also be carried out in order to
find out the effects they cause to the bandwidth and the
antenna performance (input impedance, return loss and
antenna radiation.).
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OBJECTIVES

To design triple band PIFA antenna for mobile handheld


devices that operates frequency bands of GSM 900MHz,
DCS 1800MHz and Bluetooth 2400MHz using CST MWS.
To measure and evaluate the antenna performance in
terms of return loss, VSWR, bandwidth and input
impedance.

PROJECT SCOPE

This project is intended to develop and analyze a triple band


PIFA that is capable to cover Cellular frequencies of
GSM900, DCS1800 and Bluetooth/WLAN 2400MHz.
The antenna will be modeled and simulated with simulation
software called CST MW Studio.
A parameter study will also be carried out to different
parameters such as:

Shorting plate,
Height of antenna,
Ground plane
Gap slots
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PROBLEM STATEMENT

Nowadays more and more wireless standards are being


supported by the wireless devices, so they employ
several antennas for each standard.
This leads to large space requirement in handheld
devices. Therefore due to the space constraints in
mobile devices, an antenna has to cover multiple band
frequencies in order to allow more space in the mobile
devices.
Therefore Antennas like PIFA will allow multiband
operation and will give less space to wireless devices.
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METHODOLOGY (Process)

METHODOLOGY (Calculations)

In order to calculate the dimensions of the PIFA antenna,


this formula is used.
c=speed of light 3x106 m/s
f = operating frequency
L=Length of the radiating patch
W= Width of the radiating patch

Results obtained by
calculation
F1

L1+W1=
F2

L2 + W3=

F3

L3 + W3=

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METHODOLOGY (Dimensions)

Paramet
ers

Descriptions

Dimensions
(mm)

Ground plane
length

84

Ground plane width

46

L1

Rad. Patch length 1

42

W1

Rad. Patch width 1

46

L2

Rad. Patch length 2

21

W2

Rad. Patch width 2

21

L3

Rad. Patch length 3

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W3

Rad. Patch width 3

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Shorting plate
width

8.5

Antenna height

6.8

Slot gab size

W,W1

W
2
L1
W
3
L3

L2

Antenna dimensions in front view and


side view

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


ANTENNA
DESIGN

Side view of PIFA antenna

The PIFA antenna with dual L-shaped slot


in order to obtain triple band frequencies
PIFA antenna with Dual Lshaped slot on the top
patch

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


Parametric Study

The following parameters will be studied in order to find out the effects to the characteristics of
PIFA antenna.

S
L

G
W
Shorting plate
Ground plane
Gab slot size
width
size
One parameter will be changed at once while the rest are
made constant.

Height

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


Ground Plane size
Increasing
the
ground plane size
will increase the
bandwidth
and
reduce the return
loss of the third
operating
frequency

The best size chosen is 84x46 since it produces best


optimized result

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


Gab slot size

Increasing the gab slot


size
will
shift
right
(decrease) the last two
operating frequencies.

As shown in figure, the best optimized


gab slot is
2 mm
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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


Shorting plate
Increasing the shorting plate width
width will only effect the first
operating frequency since shorting plate is connected to the
main radiating patch

Increasing the width of shorting plate


increases

The most optimized width chosen is


6mm

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


Height

Decreasing the height will reduce the


return loss of the operating frequency
but will increase the bandwidth of the
antenna

The most optimized height chosen


is 8mm
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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


SIMULATION RESULT
S11 PARAMETER

F1= 0.967 GHz


Return
Loss = -25.06dB
F2= 1.81 GHz
Return
Loss = -35.54dB
F3= 2.48 GHz
Return
Loss = -25.06dB
Bandwidth

All the three operating frequencies have


a return loss of less than -10dB
Bandwidth of the three bands were
narrower due to the height of the
antenna being small

F1 Bandwidth = 46 MHz
(4.8%)
F2 Bandwidth = 103 MHz
(5.7%)
F3 Bandwidth = 99 MHz
(4.0%)
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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


SIMULATION RESULT

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio


(VSWR)

F1=
1.118

F2=
1.034

F3=
1.055

VSWR obtained in simulation < 2 which


means most of the power is radiated

Input Impedance

F1=
47.5

F2= 54

F3= 54

The input impedance of the simulated antenna


was almost 50
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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


SIMULATION RESULT
Radiation
pattern

0.9

1.8

2.4

Operating frequency
(GHz)

Directivity
(dBi)

Gain (dB)

0.9

4.54

5.100

-0.5621 (dB)

87.9%

1.8

6.63

6.632

-0.003244
(dB)

98.6%

-0.1724 (dB)

96.1%

2.4

5.65

5.482

Radiation efficiency

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


MEASUREMENT RESULT
S11 PARAMETER

F1= 0.996 GHz


Return
Loss = -25.35dB
F2= 1.83 GHz
Return
Loss = -30.28dB
F3= 2.49 GHz
Return
Loss = -24.22dB
Bandwidth

F1 Bandwidth = 77 MHz
(7.7%)
F2 Bandwidth = 55 MHz
(3.1%)
F3 Bandwidth = 242 MHz
(9.7%)
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RESULT AND ANALYSIS


MEASUREMENT RESULT

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio


(VSWR)

F1=
1.1497
F2=
1.088
F3=
1.1463

Input Impedance

F1=
49.8
F2=
45.5
F3=
52.8
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RESULT AND ANALYSIS

Comparison between Measurement and Simulation result


Return Loss comparison

Simulated Design
Difference between
simulated and measured
result
is due toof
following:
Misalignment
antenna
during assembling parts
together
Soldering
Fabricated Design
Interference from
surroundings

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS

Comparison between Measurement and Simulation result


VSWR comparison

Simulated Design

Fabricated Design

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS

Comparison between Measurement and Simulation result

Measurem

Simulation Difference

ent

Center

0.996

0.96

0.036

frequencies

1.804

1.84

0.036

2.503

2.47

0.033

(GHz)
Return loss

-25.36

-29.37

4.01

(dB)

-30.28

-21.63

8.65

-24.22

-24.93

0.71

Bandwidth

77(7.7%)

46(4.8%)

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(MHz)

55(3.1%)

103(5.6%)

48

242(9.7%)

99(4%)

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All these parts were


assembled together.

Ground
plane

Radiating
25
patch

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

CONCLUSION
Triple band PIFA antenna that was designed in CST MW
studio was fabricated and measured.
Both simulated and measured result showed similar
except indifference due to the interference and
misalignment of antenna during assembling and
fabrication.

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CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

RECOMMENDATIO
N

In the future, the tri-band PIFA antenna that is designed


can be improved in many ways to increase its
performance.
More multiband can be employed such as for GSM1900,
UMTS (1920-2100 MHz) and WLAN 5.5 GHz band
The antenna can be miniaturized to reduces its size and
be fitted to latest mobile phones

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THE
END
THANK
YOU
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