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Sari KD

CLAUSE AND PHRASE

Clause ( S + V ).
A clause that can stand by itself as a sentence is
a main clause / independent clause
Ex : He walked down the street
S
V
A clause that cannot stand by itself as a sentence
is a subordinate clause / dependent clause
Ex : As I approached the house ( What
happened?)
S V

Phrase (S / V)
Losing my wedding ring
Pretty woman

TYPES OF SENTENCES
Simple Sentence (1 independent clause)
I enjoy playing tennis with my friend every
weekend
I love you
Compound Sentence (2 or more independent
clauses)
I enjoy tennis, but I hate golf
I love you and I want to marry you

1.
2.

3.

I cant buy a car _____ I save


enough money.
Bob ate a large
dinner;_______he is still
hungry.
I didnt have my
umbrella,_____ I got wet.

COMPLEX SENTENCE (1 INDEPENDENT


CLAUSE &1 (MORE) DEPENDENT CLAUSE(S))
Adverb Clause
Although women in the United States could
own property, they could not vote until
1920s.
I had left before he came
When I fall in love, it would be forever

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Time:after, before, when, while, as, by the


time, whenever, since, until, as soon as,
once, as long as
Cause and effect:because, since, now that,
as, as long as, inasmuch as, so (that), in
order that
Contrast:although, even though, though,
whereas, while
Condition:if, unless, only if, even if,

Adjective Clause
I thanked the woman. She helped me
I thanked the woman who helped me (people
)
The man was Mr Jones. I saw him
The man whom I saw was Mr Jones (people)
I know the man. His bicycle was stolen
I know the man whose bicyle was stolen
(possession)

The building is very old. He lives there


The building where he lives is very old.(a
place)
Ill never forget the day. I met you then (on
that day)
Ill never forget the day when I met you
(time)
The book is mine. It is on the table
The book which is on the table is mine

FAMOUS QUOTES

Show me a friend who will weep with me;


those who will laugh with me I can find
myself (Yugoslav proverb)
Very few people can congratulate without
envy a friend who has succeeded (Aeschylus
(Greek playwright)
Friendship is a plant which we must often
water (German proverb)
A true friend is somebody who can make us
do what we can (Ralph Waldo Emerson (U.S
writer)

The professor who teaches Chemistry 101 is


an excellent lecturer. (the adjective clause is
necessary to identify which professor is
meant)
Professor Wilson, who teaches Chemistry
101, is an excellent lecturer (additional
information)
His wife who lives in Bogor is a doctor.
His wife, who lives in Bogor, is a doctor

NOUN CLAUSE (S / O)
Wh

Question
Where does she live? I dont know where she
lives
What did he say? I couldnt hear what she said
Who is she? I dont know who she is
Who are those men? I dont know who those
men are
What did she say? What she said surprised me

Yes/ No Question
Does he need help? I wonder whether he needs
help
I wonder if he needshelp
Statement
He is a good actor
I think that he is a good
actor
The world is round
It is a fact that the
world is round

I know what you did last summer

COMBINE EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SETS OF


SENTENCES INTO A SINGLE LONGER SENTENCE
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

He has been absent frequently. He has


managed to pass the test.
The children were playing outdoors last night.
It began to rain very hard.
Frank is the man. We are going to nominate
Frank for the office of the treasurer.
People respected George Washington. He
turned out to be one of our greatest military
leaders
The president went fishing. He has finished
with the conferences. The conferences
discussed the climate change.

6. Thousand of babies are born with serious physical and


mental problems. Their mothers are addicted to crack
cocaine.
7. John has received a scholarship. Johns grades are the
highest in school.
8. The alphabet is used in English. It is called the Roman
alphabet. It was developed by the Romans. The Romans
had
taken most of it from the Etrucans.
9 Tennis offers a pleasent means of recreation for young
people. It can be played by two or four players.
10 The bank is very reliable. I have just borrowed some
money
from it.