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Process capability

Premiered by EDOUARD GATETE of

The Pennsylvania State University.

Measurements of process capability
How can Process Capability be used in an

A real world example


Process capability is defined as a how

likely a product is going to meet the design
It has been argued whether the specifications are
actually set by customers or design engineers.

Measurements of process

Most of the times, conventional process

capability work quite well, but we have to
keep in minds that they will be times when
the usual formulas dont work.
An index that measure potential process capability
is used in unusual situation.

Measurements of Process

The formula C sub P is the tolerance

divided by six standard deviations (also
known as sigma)
C sub P = tolerance/6-sigma
Reveals how many six-sigma fits within a specified
In order for a product to meet specifications, at least
99.773% of productions should confirm anticipated
operation condition.

Measurement of process
Population : a collection of all observation
of interest to a decision maker.
Sample: a portion of population
population distribution: a distributions of
the entire population
sampling distribution: distributions of
sample means.

How to use process capability in

an organization

The control chart

bell-shaped curve: as long as all inputs to a
process remain constant, the output will
always vary

The difference between Stable

and capability
A process is capable if a given product
meets specifications.
A process is stable if there is a common
variation present in the process

The disadvantage of using

process capability
Over-correcting: the most common
reducing variation

Factors influencing the

tolerance allocation
Statistical aspects of the dimensions and
manufacturing processes involved
Assembly requirements and conditions
the cost-tolerance relationship
International Standards Organization's
practices for fits.

A real world example

Taking an example of a car manufacture

company. The process capability will be
used if out of 1000000 cars produced, only
3.4 cars come out defective


A certain manufacturing process is

producing metal washers that have
diameters that are known to be normally
distributed with mean 1 inch and standard
deviation .006 inch. The process is known to
be stable and in control. The specifications
for these washers are 1 inch +/- .01. What
percentage are within specification limits?


We have just reviewed process capability.

This process is used in production to
determine whether a product meets
specification on a consistent basis. Even
though they are a lot of complex ways to to
figured out process capability, its more
important to understand the basics before
we can get in more details.


This presentation has definitely focused on

the basics of process capability. It is very
important to minimize defects in
production if you want to optimize the


A bibliography used to come up with these

slides is as follow;

Hart, M. Quality Tools for Decreasing

Variation and Defining Process Capability.
V33 n2. Second Quarter 1992, p.6-11.

Raouf, A. On developing optimal process
capability index. International Journal of
Quality & Reliability Management. V9 n7.
1992. P. 17-22
Bothe, D. R. Measure process capability
when Cp wont work. Quality. V34 n8. Aug
1995. P. 20-22


Foster, T. S. An integrative approach.

Managing Quality 2001. P. 374-376.