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CURRENT SITUATION OF USING

SILICON BASED FERTILIZER FOR


AGRICULTURAL PURPOSE
By
Tran Xuan Cuong

Examination committee: Dr. Avishek Datta (Chairperson)


Dr. Abha Mishra

Outline
Introduction
Silicon based fertilizer
Effect of silicon in crop production
Role of silicon in disease and pest control
Alleviate effect of silicon in abiotic stress
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

Origin and history

A nonmetallic chemical
element in the carbon
family of elements.

Second most abundant


element in the earth's
crust

Symbol: Si

Atomic number: 14

Melting point: 1,414 C

Boiling point: 2,357 C

Silicon crystallizes in a
diamond cubic crystal

Origin and history


(continued)

Silicon

in

earths

crust

always exists in the form of


silicates

and

aluminosilicates

In soil solution, Silicon is


mostly exist in the form of
silicic

acid,

such

as

metasilicic acid (H2SiO3)

Silicon is deemed as a
fundamental nutrient for a
group of algae known as

Origin and history


(continued)
In plants, silicon is present
mostly as silicon dioxide
(SiO2)

In

greater

or

lesser

quantities, most plant has


to absorb silicon

Silicon
vital

is

considered

element

Equisetaceae

for
family

as
the
in

vascular plants

In addition, absorption of
silicon is known as in the

Origin and history


(continued)

Effect of silicon (Si) on rice growth and yield.

(a) Rice with low levels of Si is susceptible to insect attack


(b) a low level of Si accumulation results in grain discoloration
due to infection by multiple fungal pathogens

Source: Ma and Yamaji, 2006

SILICON
BASED
FERRILIZER
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Potential source for Silicon


based Fertilizer

One of the viable material that can be used as sources of


Silicon is plant residues. Some notable residues are rice
hulls and sugarcane bagasse.

Potential source for Silicon


based Fertilizer (continued)

Byproducts also good sources


for Silicon

Slag, the waste of iron


industry, used as a silicate
fertilizer, and the content of Si
in the slag is guaranteed.

In Japan, calcium silicate


hydrate, a waste byproduct of
the building industry having Si
solubility greater than slags
from the iron and alloy mills
was utilized in rice farming.

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Silicon - based fertilizer


commercial
Silicon based

Maximizes

fertilizer

use

Ideal
for soil by
application
efficiency
reducing
leaching

losses

of

fertilizer with
Sulfur & Calcium

Nitrogen, Potash & other


Micro Nutrients.

Reducing

fixation

of

phosphates in the soil as


well as makes available
phosphates

fixed

in

Silicon:
46%
Sulfur:
8%
Calcium:
6%

the

soil.

Improves

root

mass

white root development.

&
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Silicon - based fertilizer commercial


(continued)
Bio Active Silicon

Fertilizer
Commercial
name: Biasic

Main

component:

potassium

silicate

liquid
water

soluble 100%

Origin: Thailand

Source: Extracted from rice


husk, rich of many silicon,
have no side effect with
human and plant.

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Silicon - based fertilizer commercial


(continued)
Sugarcane

Corn

13

EFFECT OF
SILICON IN
CROP
PRODUCTION
14

Rice

Japanese farmers already used silicon based fertilize in order


to enhance and sustain the average rice yields up to 6t/ha
from 1955.

Silicate slag application at an optimum rate of 1.5-3.0 t ha is


now widely used in degraded paddy fields in Japan

Results is very promising

Yield increases 10%, exceed 30% when leaf blast is severe


The percentage of perfect grain in brown rice and in milled rice
hull increased by 7.5% and 3.5% respectively, comparing with
NPK application (without Si)
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Rice (continued)

In China,
pivotal

Rice plays a
role

system,

in

crops

However

deficiency of available Si in
paddy soil is approximate 5
to

million

hectares,

compared with the total


area of rice cultivation is
30 million hectares

Application of a Si fertilizer
- sodium silicate (Na2SiO3)

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Rice (continued)

Effect of silicate fertilizer application on rice growth and


yield in Jiangsu province - China

Applicati

Number

Number

Percenta

on rate

of

of

ge of

(kg/ha)

panicle

spikelet

ripening

grain

X 104/ha

per

4.84
4.94
5.03
5.03

panicle
74.7
73.9
74.8
76.8

85.9
90.9
91.4
91.5

22.9
23.7
23.8
25.5

7.01
7.87
8.16
8.23

0
75
105
135

Source: Takahashi et al., 1990

Weight

Yield

of 1000 (ton/ha

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Rice (continued)

In Brazil, upland rice occupies


approximately 70% of the total
rice area in Brazil

Upland rice is cultivated


extensive

areas

savannas where
soils

are

in

in
the

predominant

Oxisols,

which

available Si is low.

Field

experiment

regions
application

in

indicated
of

these
that

wollastonite

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Rice (continued)

In Colombia, a similar response to Si fertilization was also


reported in two cultivars of upland rice at Santa Rosa
Province
0

Si application rate (ton/ha)


Oryzica 1
1992
1993 (residual 1992)
1993 (residual 1992 + 1ton/ha
Si)
Oryzica Llanos 5
1992
1993 (Residual 1992)
1993 (Residual 1992 + 1ton/ha

Yield (ton/ha)
1
2

2.1
2.7
4.0

3.2
3.6
4.1

3.6
3.7
3.9

3.7
3.8
4.2

5.1
4.6
4.7

5.0
4.6
4.6

4.1
2.3
4.7

Si)

Source: Correa-Victoria et al., 2001)

4.5
2.2
4.7

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane
accumulator

is

also

and

Si
an

important economic crop


in many countries

In Hawaii , yields of cane


and sugar in Hawaii have
been increased 10-50% on
soils low in Si by using
Silicon based fertilizer

Nowadays,

sugar

plantations regularly apply

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Sugarcane (continued)
In China, sugarcane is exclusively grown in southern and southeastern
China. where Si deficiency occurs commonly in most soils
In soils with concentrations of available Si less than 110 mg SiO2,/kg, Si
deficient symptoms may be observed in sugarcane crops
Typically, sugarcane suffering from Si deficiency will have twisted leaves
and lack of erectness (Ye and Xu. 1995)
Applying 750 kg of fertilizer (available Si 23%) increased sugarcane
yield by 30 ton/ha, and enhanced sugar output by 8.5%. Similar
responses were obtained by applying 450-750 kg/ha of yellow
phosphorous slag.
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Sugarcane (continued)

In Brazil, on sandy soils, sugarcane has shown consistent


responses to Si fertilization. The increase in yield, by
applying cement and calcium silicate to the soils with a low

Si content,
ranged
Calcium
silicate (kg/ha)

from 7 to 12%

Yield (t/ha)

Barreiro Farm

Amoreira Farm

145

128

700

153

134

1400

154

136

2800

163

137

5600

161

135

Sources: Korndorfer and Lepsch, 2001

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Other crops

Silicon also has benefit to growth of Cucumber

Effect of Si supply on the yield of cucumber in two


commercial greenhouses in two successive year
Grower

-Si

+Si

Kg m2

Fruit wt.(g)

Kg m2

Fruit wt.(g)

1st year

58.8

485

62.2

492

2nd year

67.8

510

70.9

505

1st year

28.2

520

28.5

544

2nd year

26.6

498

27.6

485

Source: Voogt and Sonneveld, 2001

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Other crops (continued)


In case of Tomato, there is a possibility that
reproductive growth might be affected by silicon
treatment
Effects of Si deficiency on tomato pollen fertility
Treatment SiO2
(mg)
0

Growth Stage
Before Bloom

Fertility Ratio
(%)
82

In Bloom

64

100

Before Bloom

93

100

In Bloom

91

Source: Miyake and Takahashi. 1978

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ROLE OF
SILICON IN
DISEASE AND
PEST
CONTROL
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Preventing disease and pest

Rice blast and brown spot


is the most serious threats
to rice

Blast

is

caused

fungus

by

the

Magnaporthe

grisea. It can affect all


above ground parts of a
rice
node,

plant:

leaf,

collar,

neck,

and

sometimes leaf sheath.

Brown spot is a fungal

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Preventing disease and pest


(continued)
Influence of silicon fertilization (2 tons slag/ha) and foliar spray
of benomyl (1.68 kg/ha) on blast incidence in rice farming in
Florida - USA

Treatment

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Source: Datnoff et al., 1997

Blast incidence (%)

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Preventing disease and pest


(continued)
Effect of silicon (2 ton slag/ha) and propiconizole (0.44 L/ha)
on brown spot severity in rice farming in Florida USA . Brown
spot severity based on a scale of 0-9, where 0=no disease and
9=76% or more of leaf area affected
Treatment

100
80
60
40
20
0

Source: Datnoff et al., 1997

Brow spot severity (%)

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Preventing disease and pest


(continued)

Silicon has also been reported to prevent powdery mildew


and stem rot diseases of cucumber, which is not a Siaccumulating plant (Voogt and Sonneveld, 2001).

Silicon is also effective in increasing the resistance to fungal


pathogen in cucumber roots (Cherif et al. 1994) Silicon has
also been reported to prevent powdery mildew and stem rot
diseases of cucumber, which is not a Si-accumulating plant
(Voogt and Sonneveld, 2001).

Silicon is also effective in increasing the resistance to fungal


pathogen in cucumber roots (Cherif et al. 1994)
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Preventing disease and pest


(continued)
List of diseases which occurrence is suppressed by Si
Crops

Disease

Rice

Blast

Sheath bright

Brown Spot

Stem rot

Leaf scald

Grain discoloration

Barley

Powdery Mildew

Wheat

Powdery Mildew

Cucumber

Powdery Mildew

Stem rot

Root Infecting Fungi (Pythium spp.)

Muskmelon

Powdery mildew

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ALLEVIATE
EFFECTS OF
SILICON TO
ABIOTIC STRESS
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Silicon and physical


stresses
Silicon and water stress
Water deficiency (drought stress) leads to the closure of
stomata and subsequent decrease in the photosynthetic
rate. Silicon can alleviate water stress by decreasing
transpiration.
Silicon can reduce the transpiration rate by 30% in rice,
which has a thin cuticle.
Under water-stressed conditions (low humidity), the effect
of Si on rice growth was more pronounced than on rice that
cultivated under non-stressed conditions (high humidity)
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Silicon and physical stresses


(continued)
Silicon and stress associated with climatic
condition
Silicon application in rice is effective in alleviating the damage caused
by climatic stress such as typhoons, low temperature and insufficient
sunshine during the summer season (Ma et al. 2001a)
A typhoon causes lodging and sterility in rice, resulting in a
considerable reduction of the rice yield. Deposition of Si in rice
enhances the strength of the stem by increasing the thickness of the
culm wall and the size of the vascular bundles (Shimoyama 1958),
thereby preventing lodging.
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Silicon and chemical stresses


Silicon and deficiency in or excess
of Phosphorus
Deficiency in P in soil is a worldwide problem.
Excess P causes chlorosis or necrosis in leaves, probably
due to the decreased availability of essential metals such
as Fe and Zn
Silicon can alleviate the damage caused by P excess by
decreasing the excessive uptake of P, resulting in a
decrease in the internal inorganic P concentration
The Si induced decrease of P uptake has also been
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Silicon and chemical stresses


(continued)
Silicon and Nitrogen excess
Application of nitrogen fertilizers is an important practice for

increasing yield. However, excess N causes lodging, mutual shading,


susceptibility to diseases and so on.
Silicon deposited on the stems and leaf blades prevents lodging and

mutual shading, as stated above


The occurrence of blast disease is significantly inhibited by Si

application in the field, especially when N application is heavy


Excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers also causes a high

protein content in brown rice, which affects its quality. Sufficient


supply of Si to rice is effective in producing low protein rice

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Silicon and chemical stresses


(continued)
Silicon and Al to toxicity
Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop production in acid
soils. Ionic Al inhibits root growth and nutrient uptake (Ma
et al. 2001b)
Alleviative effect of Si on Al toxicity is reported in many
cases such as sorghum, barley, teosinte, maize, rice, and
soybean
In an experiment with maize, Si addition as silicic acid
significantly

alleviated

AI-induced

inhibition

of

root

elongation. The alleviative effect was more apparent with


increasing Si concentration. (Ma et al. 1997)

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Silicon and chemical stresses


(continued)
Silicon and Salinity

Silicon

has been proven very effective in alleviating the

effects of salt stress

In rice, shoot and root growth of rice was inhibited by 60%


in the presence of 100 mM NaCl for three weeks, but Si
addition significantly alleviated salt-induced injury (Matoh
et al. 1986)

The Na concentration in the shoot decreased to about half


by Si addition
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Silicon and chemical stresses


(continued)

Beneficial effects of Si under various stresses ( Jian Feng Ma.38


2004 )

CONCLUSION

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Conclusion

Nowadays, Silicon based

fertilizer has been used

universally for agricultural purpose. Even, Si has become


globally important and considered as an environmentfriendly
Silicon is truly effective in increasing yields of crops,
especially rice and sugarcane
It has been proven that Silicon fertilizer generates
resistance in many plants to diseases and pests, thereby
contributing to reduced rates of application of pesticides
and fungicides in farming activities
Silicon plays a pivotal role in the resistance of plants to
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THANK YOU !