Details on bond anchorage and development length. Powerpoint presentation for the benefit of student community.

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Details on bond anchorage and development length. Powerpoint presentation for the benefit of student community.

© All Rights Reserved

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Lecture on

CE 4014

(Bond, Anchorage

and Development

Design of Concrete

Length) Structures

Part (I)

Dr. Khin Than Yu

Professor and Head

20-3-2008

Department of Civi

In reinforced concrete

beams it is assumed that

strain in the embedded

reinforcing bar is the same

as that in the surrounding

concrete.

Therefore, it is essential

that bond force is

developed on the interface

between concrete and

steel to prevent significant

slip from occurring at the

interface.

Department of Civi

Mechanical friction between

steel and concrete

Slip induced interlocking of

natural roughness of the bar

with concrete

End anchorage, hooks :

providing tie arch action

even for bond broken beam.

Force in the steel,

T = Mmax / z

bond force via the shoulders

of the projecting ribs bear

on the surrounding

concrete.

Department of Civi

Cracked Section Analysis

u = local average unit bond stress

o = sum of the perimeter of all bars

Jd = internal lever arm between tensile

and compressive force resultants

dx = short piece of length of beam

dT = dM / jd

For local equilibrium,

change in

bar force = bond force

at the contact

surface

Department of Civi

u dx = dT,

Stress

stresses only where the actual

crack is located. Steel T is

maximum and

T max = M / jd .

Between cracks , concrete

does resist moderate amount

of tension introduced by bond.

u is proportional to the rate of

change of bar force, and

highest where the slope of the

steel force curve is greatest.

Very high local bond stress

adjacent to the crack.

Department of Civi

sectional theory, T is

proportional to the moment

diagram and u is proportional to

shear force diagram.

In actual, T is less than the

simple analysis prediction

everywhere except at the actual

cracks.

Similarly, u is equal with simple

analysis prediction only at the

location where slopes of the

steel force diagrams are

equals .If the slope is greater

than assumed, bond stress is

greater; if the slope is less bond

stress is less.

Department of Civi

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

(small diameter bars are

used with sufficiently

large concrete cover

distances and bar

spacing)

Splitting of the

concrete along the

bar (cover or bar

spacing is insufficient to

resist the lateral

concrete tension

resulting from the

wedging effect of bar

deformations)

Department of Civi

For sufficiently confined bar, adhesive bond and friction are overcome as

the tensile force on the bar is increased. Concrete eventually crushes

locally ahead of the bar deformation and bar pullout results.

Splitting

Splitting comes from wedging action when the ribs of the deformed bars

bear against the concrete.

Splitting in horizontal plane: frequently begins at a diagonal crack in connection

with dowel action. Shear and bond failures are often interrelated.

When pull out resistance is overcome or when splitting has spread all the way to

the end of an unanchored bar, complete bond failure occurs.

Large local variation of bond stress caused by flexural and diagonal cracks

immediately adjacent to cracks leads to this failure below the failure load

of the beam.

Results small slip and some widening of cracks and increase of deflections.

Harmless as long as the failure does not propagate all along the bar.

(development length concept)

Department of Civi

b. Development Length

Development length is the length of embedment necessary to develop the full tensile strength of bar,

controlled by either pullout or splitting.

In Fig., let

maximum M at a and zero at support

fs at a T = Ab fs _

Development length concept total tension force must be transferred from the bar to the concrete in

the distance l

l by bond stress on the surface.

To fully develop the strength T = Ab fy

ld , development length

Safety against bond failure:

failure: the length of the bar from any point of given steel stress to its nearby end must

be at least equal to its development length. If the length is inadequate, special anchorage can be provided.

Department of Civi

10

Length

Cover distance

Bar spacing

Lateral reinforcement

Vertical bar location relative to beam depth

Epoxy coated bars or not

Excess reinforcement

Bar diameter

Department of Civi

11

OF TENSION REINFORCEMENT

Limit

fc are not to be greater than 100

psi.

Department of Civi

12

= 1.5,

Department of Civi

13

Example:

Department of Civi

14

Continu

e:

Department of Civi

15

Continue:

Department of Civi

16

HOOKS

In the event that the desired tensile stress in a bar can not

be developed by bond alone, it is necessary to provide

special anchorage at the end of the bar.

Department of Civi

17

Department of Civi

18

Factors for Hooked Bars

Department of Civi

19

Department of Civi

20

Example

Department of Civi

21

REINFORCEMENT

Department of Civi

22

DEVELOPMENT OF BARS IN

COMPRESSION

Reinforcement may be

required to develop its

compressive strength

by embedment under

various circumstances.

length in compression

Department of Civi

23

or bend

T = As fs = M/z

T = function of (M)

ACI Code: uniformly loaded,

continuous beam of fairly

regular span may be

designed using moment

coefficients.

Department of Civi

24

Requirements

Department of Civi

25

If cutoff points are in tension zone (to prevent formation of premature flexural and

diagonal tension cracks) no flexural bar shall be terminated unless the following

conditions are specified.

Department of Civi

26

Standard

Cutoff and

Bend Points

than 50% of

tensile steel

is to be cutoff

or bent

Department of Civi

27

of Zero Moment

It is necessary to consider whenever the moments over the development length are greater than those corresponding to a linear reduction to zero.

Bond force per unit length , u = dT / dx = dM / zdx, proportional to the slope of the moment diagram.

Maximum bond forces u would occur at point of inflection and pullout resistance is required.

Slope of M diagram at any point = V at that point

Let Mn = nominal flexural

strength provided by those

bars extend to the

point of inflection.

Department of Civi

28

For assumed (conservatively) uniformed slope of moment diagram Vu towards the positive moment region,

length a at M = Mn

a = Mn/Vu

ACI Code

Department of Civi

29

total collapse can be prevented through relatively

minor changes in bar detailing owing to

accidental or abnormal loading.

continuously through a support catenary action of

beam can prevent from total collapse even if the

support is damaged.

ACI Code

Department of Civi

30

Comment

design for anchorage, development

length and structural integrity

requirements are important to have

proper structural performance of the

building.

Department of Civi

31

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