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Yangon Technological University

Department of Civil Engineering

Lecture on

CE 4014
(Bond, Anchorage
and Development
Design of Concrete
Length) Structures
Part (I)
Dr. Khin Than Yu
Professor and Head
20-3-2008

Design of Concrete Structures

Text and Reference

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FUNDAMENTALS OF FLEXURAL BOND

In reinforced concrete
beams it is assumed that
strain in the embedded
reinforcing bar is the same
as that in the surrounding
concrete.
Therefore, it is essential
that bond force is
developed on the interface
between concrete and
steel to prevent significant
slip from occurring at the
interface.

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Source of bond strength

Weak chemical adhesion


Mechanical friction between
steel and concrete
Slip induced interlocking of
natural roughness of the bar
with concrete
End anchorage, hooks :
providing tie arch action
even for bond broken beam.
Force in the steel,
T = Mmax / z

Deformed bar: providing


bond force via the shoulders
of the projecting ribs bear
on the surrounding
concrete.

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a. Bond Stress Based on Simple


Cracked Section Analysis
u = local average unit bond stress
o = sum of the perimeter of all bars
Jd = internal lever arm between tensile
and compressive force resultants
dx = short piece of length of beam

dT = dM / jd
For local equilibrium,
change in
bar force = bond force
at the contact
surface
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u dx = dT,

b. Actual Distribution of Flexural Bond


Stress

Pure bending case

Concrete fails to resist tensile


stresses only where the actual
crack is located. Steel T is
maximum and
T max = M / jd .
Between cracks , concrete
does resist moderate amount
of tension introduced by bond.
u is proportional to the rate of
change of bar force, and
highest where the slope of the
steel force curve is greatest.
Very high local bond stress
adjacent to the crack.

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Beam under transverse loads,

According to simple crack


sectional theory, T is
proportional to the moment
diagram and u is proportional to
shear force diagram.
In actual, T is less than the
simple analysis prediction
everywhere except at the actual
cracks.
Similarly, u is equal with simple
analysis prediction only at the
location where slopes of the
steel force diagrams are
equals .If the slope is greater
than assumed, bond stress is
greater; if the slope is less bond
stress is less.

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ULTIMATE BOND STRENGTH AND


DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

Types of bond failure

Direct pullout of bars


(small diameter bars are
used with sufficiently
large concrete cover
distances and bar
spacing)

Splitting of the
concrete along the
bar (cover or bar

spacing is insufficient to
resist the lateral
concrete tension
resulting from the
wedging effect of bar
deformations)

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a. Ultimate Bond Strength

Direct pull out

For sufficiently confined bar, adhesive bond and friction are overcome as
the tensile force on the bar is increased. Concrete eventually crushes
locally ahead of the bar deformation and bar pullout results.

Splitting

Splitting comes from wedging action when the ribs of the deformed bars
bear against the concrete.

Splitting in vertical plane


Splitting in horizontal plane: frequently begins at a diagonal crack in connection
with dowel action. Shear and bond failures are often interrelated.

Local bond failure

When pull out resistance is overcome or when splitting has spread all the way to
the end of an unanchored bar, complete bond failure occurs.

Large local variation of bond stress caused by flexural and diagonal cracks
immediately adjacent to cracks leads to this failure below the failure load
of the beam.
Results small slip and some widening of cracks and increase of deflections.
Harmless as long as the failure does not propagate all along the bar.

Providing end anchorage, hooks or extended length of straight bar


(development length concept)

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b. Development Length

Development length is the length of embedment necessary to develop the full tensile strength of bar,
controlled by either pullout or splitting.
In Fig., let
maximum M at a and zero at support
fs at a T = Ab fs _
Development length concept total tension force must be transferred from the bar to the concrete in
the distance l
l by bond stress on the surface.
To fully develop the strength T = Ab fy
ld , development length
Safety against bond failure:
failure: the length of the bar from any point of given steel stress to its nearby end must
be at least equal to its development length. If the length is inadequate, special anchorage can be provided.

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c. Factors influencing Development


Length

Tensile strength of concrete


Cover distance
Bar spacing
Lateral reinforcement
Vertical bar location relative to beam depth
Epoxy coated bars or not
Excess reinforcement
Bar diameter

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ACI CODE PROVISION FOR DEVELOPMENT


OF TENSION REINFORCEMENT

Limit

(c + ktr) / db = 2.5 for pullout case


fc are not to be greater than 100
psi.

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For two cases of practical importance, using (c + ktr) / db


= 1.5,

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Example:

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Continu
e:

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Continue:

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ANCHORAGE OF TENSION BARS BY


HOOKS
In the event that the desired tensile stress in a bar can not
be developed by bond alone, it is necessary to provide
special anchorage at the end of the bar.

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b. Development Length and Modification


Factors for Hooked Bars

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Example

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ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR WEB


REINFORCEMENT

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DEVELOPMENT OF BARS IN
COMPRESSION

Reinforcement may be
required to develop its
compressive strength
by embedment under
various circumstances.

ACI basic development


length in compression

ldb = 0.02db fy/fc


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BAR CUTOFF AND BEND POINTS IN BEAMS

Theoretical points of cutoff


or bend

T = As fs = M/z
T = function of (M)
ACI Code: uniformly loaded,
continuous beam of fairly
regular span may be
designed using moment
coefficients.

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b. Practical Considerations and ACI Code


Requirements

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If cutoff points are in tension zone (to prevent formation of premature flexural and
diagonal tension cracks) no flexural bar shall be terminated unless the following
conditions are specified.

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Standard
Cutoff and
Bend Points

For not more


than 50% of
tensile steel
is to be cutoff
or bent

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c. Special Requirements near the Point

of Zero Moment

It is necessary to consider whenever the moments over the development length are greater than those corresponding to a linear reduction to zero.
Bond force per unit length , u = dT / dx = dM / zdx, proportional to the slope of the moment diagram.
Maximum bond forces u would occur at point of inflection and pullout resistance is required.
Slope of M diagram at any point = V at that point
Let Mn = nominal flexural
strength provided by those
bars extend to the
point of inflection.

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For assumed (conservatively) uniformed slope of moment diagram Vu towards the positive moment region,
length a at M = Mn
a = Mn/Vu

Thus a must be greater than or equal to ld

ACI Code

Simply support case


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d. Structural Integrity Provisions

For major supporting elements, such as columns,


total collapse can be prevented through relatively
minor changes in bar detailing owing to
accidental or abnormal loading.

If some reinforcement properly confined is carried


continuously through a support catenary action of
beam can prevent from total collapse even if the
support is damaged.

ACI Code

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Comment

Consideration for bond and detail


design for anchorage, development
length and structural integrity
requirements are important to have
proper structural performance of the
building.

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