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Automotive fundamentals
The engine-components - Drive trainstarting & charging systems operation
Ignition system- Suspension systemsbrakes- ABS- Steering systems.
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An object / device which moves or propels by itself on its own is


known as Auto-Mobile.
Mechanical energy is converted into Motion / rotation of wheels.
Automobile components
Any Automobile consists of Power-train and Non power-train
components.

Parts involved in the process of generating power to converting it


to Motion are called Power-Train components.

Parts like Body, Frame, Interiors and Steering are Non Power-Train
components.

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Automobile Body Parts

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Chassis
includes the
engine,
suspension,
steering, brakes,
wheels, tires,
etc.

Automobile Chassis
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Body-on-Chassis/Frame Construction

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Power Train / Drive Train


Components
Power train transmit power generated at engine to the wheels
of AUTOMOBILE there by vehicle moves.
Main Components of power train.
1. Engine
2. Clutch
3. Transmission
4. Propeller Shafts
5. Differential

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1.
ENGINE
In order to create mechanical energy, car
engines needs to combust (explode) gasoline
in a closed chamber to push off a mechanical
part (piston) down and up. The up and down
motion of the piston creates a circular motion
in the crankshaft via the connecting rods. This
is more clearly seen in the animated pictures
V Block Engine
below.

4 Strokes
Short Block

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ENGINE

Two Stroke Engines


Four Stroke Engines
Spark ignition Engines
Compression Ignition Engines
Four major functions take place in the engine.
Suction, Compression, Combustion and Exhaust.
Block without the cylinder head and its components and crank
case and its components is called short block assambly.
Head, Crank and Cam shafts FIP or Carburetor, Air cleaner and the
radiator and Engine oil filter are the components mounted on the
engine.
Engines can be mounted on the rear end and the vehicles are
Plug Engine
called rearSpark
engine
Vehicles
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Automobile Engine
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internal combustion engine


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Engine Locations

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four-stroke of gasoline engine


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Number of Cylinders
Most car and truck engines have either 4, 6, or 8 cylinders
Some may have 3, 5, 10, 12, or 16 cylinders
Engine power and smoothness are enhanced by using
more cylinders
Cylinder Arrangement

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Bore and Stroke


piston
displacement

= ( radius squared) x stroke

If an engine has a bore of 4 cm


and a stroke of 3 cm, what is its
piston displacement?
piston
displacement =
= 4 x 3.14 x 3
= 37.68 cc.

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Internal Combustion Engine - Otto Cycle


Conceptualized by Nikolaus
August Otto (June 14, 1832
- January 28, 1891)
Four stroke is more fuel
efficient and clean burning
than a two stroke cycle
Otto cycle consist of strokes:

Intake stroke
Compression stroke
Power stroke
Exhaust stroke

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Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine


It is important to realize that an internal
combustion engine operates on a
mechanical cycle because the piston
system goes to the same initial points.
However from the thermodynamics stand
point this does not occur because new air
and fuel enters the engine in order to
initiate the combustion process. Thus
internal combustion engines operate in
Internal cycles.

Compression Ratio Defined as volume at


bottom dead center
divided by volume at
top dead center
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Actual and Ideal Cycles in Spark-Ignition


Engines and Their P-v Diagram

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In summary the Otto Cycle is internally reversible, so the area


Underneath the P-v diagram represents work and the T-s
Represents heat.
Also the cycle has:
2 Isentropic Processes when work is produced or input
2 processes at constant v, when heat is added or removed.

Air Standard Otto Cycle


Otto, Diesel, and Brayton cycles are gas power cycles - working fluid remains a gas
throughout the cycle
Actual gas power are very complex - to simplify we approximate > air standard
assumptions
Working fluid is air (neglect combustion products)
Air circulates in a closed loop acting as an ideal gas (constant specific heats)
All processes are internally reversible
Combustion is replaced by a heat addition process from an external source
Exhaust is replaced by a heat rejection process that return working fluid to initial
state

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Air Standard Otto Cycle

The air standard Otto Cycle is an ideal


cycle that approximates a spark-ignition
internal combustion engine. It assumes that
the heat addition occurs instantaneously
while the piston is at TDC.
Process
(1-2) Isentropic Compression
Compression from 1 => v2

BDC(
BDC(=180 )

TDC (
(=0)

(2-3) Constant Volume heat input: QH


While at TDC: umin
While
Ignition of fuel (chemical reaction
takes place)
(3-4) Isentropic Expansion
Power is delivered while s = const.
(4-1) Isentropic Expansion
QL at umax=constant (BDC, =180)
Q

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Parameters affecting thermal efficiency


Octane rating - measure of the resistance to autoignition of the
fuel
Unleaded vs. leaded
Leaded fuel resistant to autoignition - unleaded restricts engines to a
compression ratio of around 9

Specific heat ratio


Thermal efficiency degrades as the molecules in the fluid get larger

Efficiencies of actual engines range from around 25 to 30


Now - sample problem
Thur. - compression ignition cycle - no knocking problems

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Clutch or Torque
converter

An apparatus that disconnects the engine from the transmission in order for
the car to change gears and then enables the gears to resume contact and
turn together at a new speed.
It connects and disconnects
the power generated by the
Engine form the rest of the
transmission.
It can be automatic or
manually operated.
This consists of a Disc and
Pressure Plate or Plates and
also available in a fluid model
which is called Torque
Converter.
Any sort of defect in driving
would first reflect on this part.
Efficiency in driving the
vehicle depends on the Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
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Gear Box or Transmission


Multiplies engine torque via gear reduction and/or torque conversion. A typical
manual transmission has four or five speeds, with the final or highest gear being
either a direct 1:1 drive ratio or an "overdrive" ratio (less than 1:1).
This device transmits the
power to the propeller shaft
changing the RPM.
It can be automatic or
Manually operated.

Gear Box Mechanism

In a car it is operated with


the help of Gear lever which
helps the driver the gears
according to his requirement.
In a manually operated Gear
box it is mandatory to engage
the clutch and then change the
gear.
Constant Mesh and Syncro
Mesh are the types of the gear
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Propeller Shaft or Drive


shaft

Transmits engine torque to the differential, or from the differential to the drive
wheels.
It carries the power from the
Transmission or the Gearbox to the
Differential.
It is a long tube like structure
made up of hard steel.
It is provided with universal
Joints at one end and the other has
splines to fit it inside the yoke.
If there are multiple shafts in
the vehicle, it can be mounted in
the cross member of the frame and
also can be inserted into the center
bearing and mounted in the
member.

Drive Shaft Mechanism

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Differential or Rear Final


Drive
A special gearbox designed so that the torque fed into it is split and delivered to two
outputs that can turn at different speeds.
It is a very important device
which converts mechanical
energy to Motion.
It provides less motion to the
inner wheel and greater motion
to the outer wheel while the
vehicle is being turned.
Drive pinion and Driven gear
and Planetary gear assy. are the
important parts installed inside
the housing.

Differential Mechanism

It holds the wheel hubs and


break drums and the cylinders
and also carry half axel shafts
which help in moving the vehicle.

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The End
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.