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Automotive fundamentals
The engine-components - Drive trainstarting & charging systems operation
Ignition system- Suspension systemsbrakes- ABS- Steering systems.
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

Charging systems operation

Charging Systems
Uses mechanical energy from engine to create
electrical energy to operate vehicle electrical
system and recharge battery

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Charging System Functions


Recharges battery after cranking
Supplies the cars electricity when the engine
is running
Provides output voltage slightly higher than
battery voltage
Changes output to meet varying loads
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

Types of Charging Systems


Two types:
AC Generator (alternator)
DC Generator

Pulley and Belt


Crankshaft turns the
alternator belt

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Generator versus Alternator

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Alternator Assembly
Drive Frame Cover

Identification
Label

Drive Pulley

End Frame Cover

Regulator, Diode,
& Brush Cover

Circulation Vent

Alternator B+
Output Terminal

Mounting Ear
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

Charging System
Alternator: An iron core (rotor) is rotated by the engine within a stationary coil of
wire (stator).
A current (field current) is passed through the rotor creating a strong magnetic
field
As the rotor and strong magnetic field rotate within the stator, an alternating
electrical current is induced in the stator coil windings
Alternating current (AC) produced by alternator is converted to direct current
(DC) for use by vehicle electrical system by diodes
Alternator output is controlled by a voltage regulator
When output is too high, regulator reduces field current power
When output is too low, regulator increases field current power
Normal charging system voltage: 13.6 to 14.8 volts
High voltage can damage light bulbs, motors and electronic components
Low voltage can prevent battery from recharging properly
Alternator output should be sufficient to operate all electrical accessories
and still maintain voltage necessary to recharge battery.

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Charging System Circuit

Four wires connect the alternator to the rest of the charging system.

B is the alternator output wire that supplies current to the battery.

IG is the ignition input that turns on the alternator/regulator assembly.

S is used by the regulator to monitor charging voltage at the battery.

L is the wire the regulator uses to ground the charge warning lamp.

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Rectified AC Current
Automobiles electrical system requires
direct current (DC) which flows one
way
Alternator output must be rectified
(changed) from AC to DC
Diode allows current flow in only one
direction
Several are connected into a rectifier
bridge
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

UnderstandingtheAlternator
Alternator
Overview

The alternator contains:

A rotating field winding called the


rotor.

A stationary induction winding


called the stator.

A diode assembly called the


rectifier bridge.

A control device called the voltage


regulator.

Two internal fans to promote air


circulation.

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

UnderstandingtheAlternator
Drive Pulley

Alternator drive pulleys either


bolt on or are pressed on the
rotor shaft.

Both V and Multi-grove types


are used.

Note this alternator does not


have an external fan as part of
the pulley assembly.

While many manufacturers do


use a external fan for cooling.
This alternator has two internal
fans to draw air in for cooling.

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

UnderstandingtheAlternator
Inside the Alternator
Regulator

Brushes

Removal of the rear cover


reveals:
The Regulator controls the
alternator output.
The Brushes conduct current
to the rotor field winding.
The Rectifier Bridge converts
AC voltage to DC voltage.

Diode Rectifier Bridge


Slip Rings (part of the Rotor
Assembly)
Dr.Manzoor
HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

Brushes

Two slip rings are located on one end


of the rotor assembly. Each end of
the rotor field winding is attached to a
slip ring. Thereby, allowing current to
flow through the field winding.

Two stationary carbon brushes


ride on two rotating slip rings.
Bushes are either soldered or
bolted
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

UnderstandingtheAlternator
Inside the Alternator
Regulator

Brushes

Removal of the rear cover


reveals:
The Regulator controls the
alternator output.
The Brushes conduct current
to the rotor field winding.
The Rectifier Bridge converts
AC voltage to DC voltage.

Diode Rectifier Bridge


Slip Rings (part of the Rotor
Assembly)
Dr.Manzoor
HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

UnderstandingtheAlternator
Rotor Assembly
Internal Cooling Fan

Finger Poles

Rotor Field Winding

Bearing

Internal
Cooling Fan

Slip Rings

Rotor Shaft

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Stator Winding
Stator
Lead Ends

Neutral
Junction

Laminated Iron
Frame
Three Phase
Windings
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

Rotor / Stator
Relationship

As the rotor assembly rotates


within the stator winding.

The alternating magnetic field


from the spinning rotor induces an
alternating voltage into the stator
winding.

Both the strength of the magnetic


field and the speed of the rotor
affect the amount of voltage
induced into the stator.

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Body-on-Chassis/Frame Construction

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erabad.

Automobile Engine
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erabad.

Starting Systems
Starting system uses an electric motor
mounted to the engine or transmission
The starter motor meshes a small gear
with the engine crankshaft to rotate
crankshaft fast enough to start engine
The starter drive gear is moved into place
by the starter solenoid

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Starter Motor
The starter motor has a
drive assembly that
engages the ring gear
and rotates the engine.
A Starter Drive
B Flywheel Ring Gear
C Pinion Gear

21

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erabad.

Starter Motor
The pinion gear meshes
with the ring gear before
the motor turns
The teeth on the pinion
gear are tapered to
ensure smooth
engagement
The drive assembly
includes an overrunning
clutch.
22
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

Starting System Circuit

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Starter-Mounted Solenoid
Solenoid
plunger moves
a shift lever to
engage the
pinion gear

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Starting systems
The starter solenoid is energized by the
ignition switch and also provides high
current for the starter motor
The over-running clutch allows the
starter to rotate the engine while
preventing the engine from rotating the
starter motor

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Starting Systems
The starter motor contains a rotating
conductor called an armature
Stationary magnets are mounted inside
the starter housing
When current flows through the armature,
strong attracting and opposing magnetic
fields are created and react with the
stationary magnets to cause the armature
to rotate
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.

Starting Systems
Gear reduction starters
Allows a smaller motor to be used at high
speed
Gear reduction reduces speed while
increasing torque

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd


erabad.

The End
Dr.Manzoor HM. JNTU Hyd
erabad.