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Rudolf Wieser, Matthias Baechle, Valerijs Knazkins ATPE

Improving Power System Stability


Through Integrated Power System
Stabilizers
ABB Group
August 3, 2015 | Slide 1

OUTLINE
Controlled Generator on Grid

The main functions of an


Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

The main functions of a


Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

How to test an AVR system

Introduction to Real time Simulator

Grid Code compliance testing

UNITROL built in compliance test functions

The main functions of an AVR


Automatic Voltage Regulator
State-of-the-art excitation systems are equipped with fast
acting voltage regulators:

Advantages:

Fast acting voltage control and reactive power


support

Providing synchronizing torque component

Disadvantage:

Introducing negative damping torque component

Solution to the reduced damping torque problem

Power System Stabilizers

Model of a single Generator connected to Grid


Turbine and Generator Mechanics

Turbine driving torque

Tm

Generator braking torque

Te

Mechanical rotational speed

Model of a single Generator connected to Grid


Turbine and Generator Connection to Grid

Turbine + Generator

Generator breaker

Step-up transformer

Transmission line

Infinite bus (constant voltage)

Model of a single Generator connected to Grid


Turbine and Generator connected to Grid

A single generator connected to a large grid can be


represented by the Phillips-Heffron model
(assuming constant field voltage and mechanical torque)

Model of a single Generator connected to Grid


Linearized Model at certain Operating Point

A single generator connected to a large grid can be


represented by the Phillips-Heffron model
(assuming constant field voltage and mechanical torque)

Model of a single Generator connected to Grid


Torque Disturbance Impact

Harmonic Phasor Representation

Torque equilibrium disturbance

Electric torque produces natural positive damping

Model of a single Generator connected to Grid


Fast Voltage Control Impact

Harmonic Phasor Representation Generator plus AVR

Electric torque form AVR function produces


negative damping torque

Model of a single Generator connected to Grid


Power System Stabilizer Function

Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

Band limited damping torque contribution

Speed estimator from electrical voltage and current signals

OUTLINE
Controlled Generator on Grid

The main functions of an


Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

The main functions of a


Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

How to test an AVR system

Introduction to Real Time Simulator

Grid Code compliance testing

UNITROL built in compliance test functions

Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator


Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Bus

Typical turbine - generator arrangement in a power plant

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator


Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Grid
SMTS-RT

Real Time Simulation of

Turbine and governor (simplified)

Generator

Breaker and step-up transformer

Grid representation with infinite Bus Voltage

Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator


Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Grid
SMTS-RT

AVR hardware
in the loop
Real Time
Simulation

Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator


Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Grid
SMTS-RT 6000

UNITROL 6000

Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator


SMTS-RT 6000; User Interface

OUTLINE
Controlled Generator on Grid

The main functions of an


Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

The main functions of a


Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

How to test an AVR system

Introduction to Real Time Simulator

Grid Code compliance testing

UNITROL built in compliance test functions

AVR Grid Code Compliance


Grid Code Example
Excerpt from of a local grid code:
Overall Excitation System Control Characteristic
The frequency domain tuning of the Power System
Stabilizer shall also be demonstrated by injecting a
0.2Hz-2Hz band limited random noise signal into the
Automatic Voltage Regulator reference while the
Generating Unit is operating at a typical load level...
The damping contribution of the Power System
Stabilizer shall improve the system-stability within the
frequency-band of interest (compared to the system
response without a stabilizer):
i.e., 0.2Hz - 2Hz

Grid Code Compliance Testing


Test scheme for
the measurement
of the
corresponding
transfer function

Grid Code Compliance Testing


Time domainresponse of the
system without
the stabilizer,
while injecting
noise signals:

ExpertDays09

Grid Code Compliance Testing


Time domainresponse of the
system with the
stabilizer, while
injecting noise
signals:

ExpertDays09

8%

Grid Code Compliance Testing


Time domainresponse of the
system with the
stabilizer, while
injecting noise
signals:

ExpertDays09

Grid Code Compliance Testing


Frequency domain
response of the
system with
(green line) and
without (blue line)
the stabilizer
connected:

F ( j )
25

Pe ( j )
Vref ( j )

20

Magnitude [dB]

15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
0.2

1
Frequency [Hz]

Grid Code Compliance Testing


Time domain
response of the
system with
(using different
gains) and
without (blue line)
the stabilizer
connected:

0.87

Pe [p.u.]

0.86

0.85

w/o PSS
with PSS, KS1=2

0.84

with PSS, KS1=3


with PSS, KS1=4

0.83

with PSS, KS1=10

time [s]