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# Rudolf Wieser, Matthias Baechle, Valerijs Knazkins ATPE

## Improving Power System Stability

Through Integrated Power System
Stabilizers
ABB Group
August 3, 2015 | Slide 1

OUTLINE
Controlled Generator on Grid

## The main functions of an

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

## The main functions of a

Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

## The main functions of an AVR

Automatic Voltage Regulator
State-of-the-art excitation systems are equipped with fast
acting voltage regulators:

Advantages:

support

Disadvantage:

## Model of a single Generator connected to Grid

Turbine and Generator Mechanics

Tm

Te

## Model of a single Generator connected to Grid

Turbine and Generator Connection to Grid

Turbine + Generator

Generator breaker

Step-up transformer

Transmission line

## Model of a single Generator connected to Grid

Turbine and Generator connected to Grid

## A single generator connected to a large grid can be

represented by the Phillips-Heffron model
(assuming constant field voltage and mechanical torque)

## Model of a single Generator connected to Grid

Linearized Model at certain Operating Point

## A single generator connected to a large grid can be

represented by the Phillips-Heffron model
(assuming constant field voltage and mechanical torque)

## Model of a single Generator connected to Grid

Torque Disturbance Impact

## Model of a single Generator connected to Grid

Fast Voltage Control Impact

## Electric torque form AVR function produces

negative damping torque

## Model of a single Generator connected to Grid

Power System Stabilizer Function

## Speed estimator from electrical voltage and current signals

OUTLINE
Controlled Generator on Grid

## The main functions of an

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

## The main functions of a

Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

## Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator

Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Bus

## Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator

Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Grid
SMTS-RT

Generator

## Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator

Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Grid
SMTS-RT

AVR hardware
in the loop
Real Time
Simulation

## Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator

Turbine, Generator, Transformer, Line to infinite Grid
SMTS-RT 6000

UNITROL 6000

## Synchronous Machine Transient Simulator

SMTS-RT 6000; User Interface

OUTLINE
Controlled Generator on Grid

## The main functions of an

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

## The main functions of a

Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

## AVR Grid Code Compliance

Grid Code Example
Excerpt from of a local grid code:
Overall Excitation System Control Characteristic
The frequency domain tuning of the Power System
Stabilizer shall also be demonstrated by injecting a
0.2Hz-2Hz band limited random noise signal into the
Automatic Voltage Regulator reference while the
Generating Unit is operating at a typical load level...
The damping contribution of the Power System
Stabilizer shall improve the system-stability within the
frequency-band of interest (compared to the system
response without a stabilizer):
i.e., 0.2Hz - 2Hz

## Grid Code Compliance Testing

Test scheme for
the measurement
of the
corresponding
transfer function

## Grid Code Compliance Testing

Time domainresponse of the
system without
the stabilizer,
while injecting
noise signals:

ExpertDays09

## Grid Code Compliance Testing

Time domainresponse of the
system with the
stabilizer, while
injecting noise
signals:

ExpertDays09

8%

## Grid Code Compliance Testing

Time domainresponse of the
system with the
stabilizer, while
injecting noise
signals:

ExpertDays09

## Grid Code Compliance Testing

Frequency domain
response of the
system with
(green line) and
without (blue line)
the stabilizer
connected:

F ( j )
25

Pe ( j )
Vref ( j )

20

Magnitude [dB]

15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
0.2

1
Frequency [Hz]

## Grid Code Compliance Testing

Time domain
response of the
system with
(using different
gains) and
without (blue line)
the stabilizer
connected:

0.87

Pe [p.u.]

0.86

0.85

w/o PSS
with PSS, KS1=2

0.84

with PSS, KS1=4

0.83

time [s]