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ENE ~ 421 Water

Resources & Irrigation

Engineering (3-1)
Mon, Tuuesday, Wed 910 AM

Course Introduction


Course Objectives:
-To enhance the knowledge of water resources management and irrigation.
Course Outcome:
-Students are expected to apply the basic principles of water resources planning and management. Since Pakistan uses one of the
largest irrigation systems in the world, students should be able to apply design considerations for open channel hydraulics& surface
Course Outline:
Water Resources:
Planning and development of water resources projects. Domestic, Industrial, Agricultural and other water usages, water resources in
Definition and types of irrigation. Merits and demerits of irrigation, Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS)
Canal Irrigation
Elementary concept about canal head works, selection of their site and layout, wiers and barrages, various components and functions.
Measures adopted to control slit entry into canals, silt ejectors and excluders. Design of weirs on permeable foundations, sheetpiles and
cut off walls. Design of irrigation channels, Kennedys and Laceys Theories. Rational methods for design of irrigation channels,
Kennedys and Laceys Theories. Rational methods for design of irrigation channels. Comparison of various methods. Computer Aided
design of irrigation channels.
Dams, Barrages and Headworks
Classification of Dams, sedimentation control. Canal head regulators, falls, flumes, canal outlets. Cross drainage works, types and
functions. Canal lining. Maintenance of irrigation canals. Monitoring of flows telemetry system.
Irrigated Agriculture.
Irrigation methods and practices. Irrigation scheduling. Management of irrigation systems, participatory irrigation management.
Water logging and salinity.
Causes and effects of water logging , reclamation of water logged soils. Drains and tube wells. Causes and effects of salinity and
alkalinity of lands in Pakistan.
Definition, Land reclamation, Surface Drainage, Subsurface Drainage, Cross-drainage structures, Disposal of drainage effluents.
Recommended Books
1. Sharma R. K. and T.R. Sharma, Irrigation and Drainage , Vol-1 to V. Oxford and IBH Pub. Co.
2. LinslayR.K , and B.F. Joseph, Water Resources Engineering, McGraw Hill.
3. Siddiqui, Iqtidar H., Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Oxford University Press.

UN-Water Factsheet
The total volume of water on
Earth is about 1.4 billion km3.
The volume of freshwater
resources is around 35 million
km3, or about 2.5 percent of the
total volume.
Of these freshwater resources,
about 24 million km3 or 70
percent is in the form of ice and
permanent snow cover in
mountainous regions, the

Around 30 percent of the world's freshwater is

stored underground in the form of groundwater
(shallow and deep groundwater basins up to 2
000 metres, soil moisture, swamp water and
permafrost). This constitutes about 97 percent
of all the freshwater that is potentially
available for human use.
Freshwater lakes and rivers contain an estimated
105,000 km3 or around 0.3 percent of the
world's freshwater.
The Earth's atmosphere contains approximately
13,000 km3 of water.
The total usable freshwater supply for
ecosystems and humans is about 200,000 km 3
of water - less than 1 percent of all freshwater

Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
croplands. Its primary objective is to create an
optimal soil moisture regime for maximizing crop
production and quality while at the same time
minimizing the environmental degradation
inherent in irrigation of agricultural lands.
Irrigation is the application of water to the soil to
supplement natural precipitation and provide an
environment that is optimum for crop
production. Irrigated crops produce more food.