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Presentation of group 10





lu tio n
 The levels and behaviors of heavy metal cau
pollution caused by automobiles s ed b
accompanied by "overuse" were y ov
investigated in Kamikochi, Chubu
er u
Sangaku National Park, Japan

 Where a high frequency of stops, start-

ups and continuous idling of automobiles
was observed. Seasonal changes in the
total metal concentrations (especially in
Cu, Zn and Sb) corresponding to the
amount of traffic were observed; higher
in the summer and lower in the winter
 At the higher pollution level
sites, the values of pH(KCl)
also increased.

 However, the concentrations

of simulated-rain-extracted
and the exchangeable form
and their percentages to each
of the total concentration
increased there as well,
suggesting that heavy metals
are in more labile condition.
 The percentages of exchangeable Ni and simulated-
rain-extracted Sb to their total concentrations were
significantly (p<0.05, multiple regression) related
with Eh, pH(KCl), CEC, Org-C, grain size
composition and total concentration of the metal.

 The amounts of dissolution during the survey

(1998 〜 2001) were 269μg for Ni and 198 mg for
Sb per 1 g DW sample at the bus terminal
Pollution Health Effects

 Polluted air contains one, or more,

hazardous substance, pollutant, or
contaminant that creates a hazard to
general health. It is usually measured in
terms of "particulate matter", or, the
number of particles of these potentially
hazardous substances as a percentage of

 According to the National Resources

Defense Council, some 64,000 people
in the USA may be dying prematurely
each year from cardiopulmonary causes
linked to air pollution
 Air pollution from coal-fired
power plants accounts for about
30,000 premature deaths in the
USA each year.

 Particulate matter includes a

wide range of pollutants road
dust, diesel soot, fly ash, wood
smoke, nitrates in fertilizers,
sulfate aerosols, lead, arsenic,
 Noise health effects are both health and
behavioral in nature

 In many developed nations the cumulative

impact of noise is sufficient to impair the
hearing of a large fraction of the
population over the course of a lifetime

 Noise exposure has also been known to

induce tinnitus hypertension,
vasoconstriction and other cardiovascular
 Human infectious diseases are among
the most serious effects of water
pollution, especially in developing

 Waterborne diseases occur when

parasites or other disease-causing
microorganisms are transmitted via
contaminated water, particularly water
contaminated by pathogens originating
from excreta. These include typhoid,
intestinal parasites, and most of the
enteric and diarrheal diseases caused by
bacteria, parasites, and viruses
 In 1993, high
cryptosporidium levels in
Milwaukee's drinking
water supply sickened
more than 400,000
residents. That was an
unusually extreme case,
but transmission of disease
agents such as bacteria and
cysts via contaminated but
poorly treated municipal
water is more common
than it should be
 The Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution calls nutrient pollution the
most widespread, chronic
environmental problem in the coastal
ocean. The discharges of nitrogen,
phosphorus, and other nutrients come
from agriculture, waste disposal,
coastal development, and fossil fuel
 It's easy enough to see how discharging the heated-up
water from a power plant into a river could cause
problems for aquatic organisms used to having their
water home stay at a fairly specific temperature.

 Indeed, industrial thermal pollution is a problem for

our waterways—fish and other organisms adapted to a
particular temperature range can be killed from
thermal shock, and the extra heat may disrupt
spawning or kill young fish.
The Pollution Control Measures
undertaken by the government of India are:
 Adoption of cost effective cleaner technologies should be encouraged
 Implementation of waste minimization techniques and adoption of
appropriate pollution control measures

 Discard and discourage technologies which do not conform to the quality of

 Spreading awareness messages through programs for the prospective and
existing entrepreneurs on usage of cleaner technologies and pollution control

 Waste minimization for improvement of productivity and creation of Waste

minimization circle
 Assistance for sustainable development to be facilitated by the Government
of India through fiscal incentives, technology, trainings etc
 An additional system of taxation to be introduced based on concentration of waste
 Encourage industry to regard 'pollution' as an economic problem

 To decide the cost of water, power, fuel, etc through market instruments
 Tax exemption on waste selling, resource recovery and reuse to be introduced

 Incentives may be introduced on waste selling, resource recovery, reuse, etc

 Scattered business units to follow stringent pollution control regulations

 Allowance for capital investment and cleaner technology from foreign and private players
 Simplification of Environmental clearance procedures for the industries located in
industrial estates
 Encourage Common Effluent Treatment Plant

 Encourage common captive power plant and steam generation unit

 During relocation of units detailed action plan to be prepared based on

 Environmental risk assessment

 Change of technology

 Waste minimization

 Small industries to get assistance from government

 Further Research and development of cleaner technologies is proposed

Pollution control

 Particulate control. Methods for particulate control tend to operate on a

common principle. The solid particles are separated from the gases in
which they are contained by physical procedures such as passage through
a settling chamber. A settling chamber is a long, wide pipe through which
gases from a manufacturing process are allowed to flow. As these gases
slow down in the pipe, the solid particles settle out. They can then be
removed from the bottom of the pipe.

 A cyclone collector is another device for removing particulates from stack

gases. The gases are fed into a rotating cylindrical container.
 Developed countries have started monitoring for toxic algal
blooms, closing fisheries as necessary.

 This has reduced the incidence of related human illness but

has had the obvious economic cost of lost income for
fishers and related businesses—and it does nothing to solve
the problem for the marine life stuck in the middle of the
brown tide.

 Chemical reactions can be used to remove pollutants

from water
 One method of dealing with solid pollutants is
simply to bury them in dumps or landfills.
Another approach is to compost them, a process
in which microorganisms turn certain types of
pollutants into useful fertilizers. Finally, solid
pollutants can also be incinerated (burned).

 The poisonous gases caused by pollution are

responsible for green house effect & these gases
are called green house gases

 When the level of green house gases in the

atmosphere increase they trap the excess heat.
Over time this results in global warming
 Green house gases in the atmosphere absorb heat &
prevent it from escaping into space, thus warming
earth. These gases keep earth warm for all living things
to survive, without this warmth earth would be about
33cc colder than it is today

 When there too much of these heat trapping gases in the

atmosphere , they will absorb more heat & warm the
planet beyond what is required
 This is resulting in ozone layer depletion & because of it ultraviolet rays
are entering earths atmosphere resulting in skin cancer & other disease

 Raised temperature have also triggered the extinction of many animal &
plant species

 On an average , rainfall & snowfall patterns have changed across the global
 Around the world , glaciers are melting rapidly

 The rate of warming in the last 50 years is double

the rate observed over the last 100 years

 Humans are pouring carbon dioxide into the

atmosphere faster than plants & oceans can absorb