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PRINCIPLES OF

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

THIRD EDITION
Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann

Introduction to
Physiology

PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the Sequoias


Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Chapter Outline
I. What Is Physiology?
II. Organization of the Body
III. Challenging Homeostasis: Thermoregulation

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Organization of the Body


Levels of organization

Cell

Tissue

Organ

System

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Organization of the Body


Simplify by classifying
Body has over 200 different cell types
Cells can be put into four groups

Neurons

Muscle cells

Epithelial cells

Connective tissue cells

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Major Tissue Types


Based primarily on cell function
Correspond to four major cell types

Nerve tissue

Muscle tissue

Epithelium (epithelial tissue)

Connective tissue

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Neurons and Nerve Tissue


Transmit signals for communication
Have branches to receive or transmit

Receive information from receptors

Transmit information to muscles or glands

Some neurons process information

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Neurons and Nerve Tissue

Figure 1.2a

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Muscle Cells
Specialized to contract
Can be voluntary or involuntary
Examples of contraction

Flexing of forearm

Pumping of blood

Mixing of food in the stomach

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Muscle Cells

Figure 1.2b

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Epithelial Cells and Epithelium


Epithelium = sheet-like layer of cells
Line external body surfaces
Line hollow body tubes and organs
Function as a barrier
Function as a transport membrane

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Epithelial Cells and Epithelium

Figure 1.2c

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Epithelium: Glands
Glands

Formed from epithelium

Manufacture a product

Major classes of glands

Exocrine glands
Have ducts

Endocrine glands
No ducts, product into blood
Product = hormone

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Epithelium: Glands

Figure 1.3a

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Epithelium: Glands

Figure 1.3b

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Connective Tissue
Most diverse of the four tissues
Characterized by extracellular matrix
Anchors and links structures of body

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Connective Tissue
Examples of connective tissue

Bone

Tendons

Fat

Blood

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Connective Tissue

Figure 1.2d

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Organ System
Tissues contain similar cells
Organs

Composed of at least two tissue types

Perform specific functions

Organ System

Collection of organs

Perform particular task

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Organ Systems

Table 1.1

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A Simplified Body Plan

Figure 1.4

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Body Fluids and Compartments

Figure 1.5ac

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Body Fluids and Compartments

Figure 1.5ce

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Body Fluid Compartments


Internal environment = fluid surrounding cells =
extracellular fluid (ECF)
70 kg man
- Total body water = 42 liters
28 liters intracellular fluid (ICF)
14 liters extracellular fluid (ECF)
-

Three liters plasma

11 liters interstitial fluid (ISF)

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Homeostasis
Ability to maintain a relatively constant internal
environment
Conditions of the internal environment which are
regulated include

Temperature

Volume

Composition

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Homeostasis: Terms
Negative feedback

If a regulated variable decreases,

System responds to make it increase, and vice versa

Tends to be self correcting

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Homeostasis: Terms
Set point

Expected value of regulated variable

Examples
Core body temperature = 37 C
Blood glucose (sugar) = 100 mg/dL
Blood pH = 7.4

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Homeostasis: Terms
Error signal

Difference between value of set point and regulated


variable

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Homeostasis: Terms

Figure 1.6cd

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Homeostasis: Components
Structures enabling homeostasis
Components include

Receptors

Integrating Centers

Effectors

Signals

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Homeostasis: Components
Receptors

Sensors which detect stimuli

Receptors include
Thermoreceptors
Chemoreceptors
Baroreceptors

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Homeostasis: Components
Integrating center

Orchestrates an appropriate response

Often particular sets of neural circuits in brain

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Homeostasis: Components
Effectors

Responsible for body responses

Effectors include
Muscles (smooth, striated, and cardiac)
Glands

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Homeostasis: Components
Signals

Allow components to communicate

Input signal is from a receptor to an integrating


center

Output signal is from an integrating center to an


effector

Signals are chemical or via neurons

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Negative Feedback Loop

Figure 1.7

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Positive Feedback Loop


Positive feedback loops cause a rapid change in a
variable.

Figure 1.8

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Homeostasis: Thermoregulation
Core body temperature

Humans: 37 C (98.6 F)

Hypothermia = decrease in body temperature

Hyperthermia = increase in body temperature


Above 41 C is dangerous
Above 43 C is deadly

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Homeostasis: Thermoregulation

Mechanisms of heat transfer between body and external


environment

Radiationthermal energy as electromagnetic waves

Conductionthermal energy through contact

Evaporationheat loss through evaporation of water

Insensible water loss

Sweating

Convectionheat transfer by movement of fluid or air

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Thermoregulation: Components
Receptors = thermoreceptors

Central: found in CNS (hypothalamus)

Peripheral: found in PNS (mainly skin)

Effectors

Glands: sweat glands

Muscles: skeletal muscles, and smooth muscle of


cutaneous blood vessels

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Thermoregulation: Components
Integrating center

Thermoregulatory center in hypothalamus

Signals

Nerve impulses via neurons

Chemicals via hormones

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Thermoneutral Zone
Range of outside temperature where
alterations in blood flow alone regulates
body temperature25-30C
Body temperature increase

Blood flow to skin increases

Body temperature decrease

Blood flow to skin decreases

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Thermoregulation
Negative feedback control of body temperature

Figure 1.9a, b

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Thermoregulation

Figure 1.9c

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Fever
Rise in core body temperature
Accompanies infection
White blood cells secrete pyrogens
Body temperature set point increases
Fever enhances immune response

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