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Cast Iron, Cast Steel and

Powder Metallurgy
Properties of Materials

Casting Process
Casting – a shape achieved by allowing
liquid to solidify in a mold
Casting process
• Sand Casting

Casting Process Die Casting .

Casting Process Permanent Mold Casting .

Casting Process Shell molding Casting .

Casting Process Centrifugal casting .

Casting Mold Sand mold .Mold made by sand .

Mold made by metal Graphite mold .Casting Mold Metal mold .

Melting Techniques a)Cupola .

Melting Techniques -Cast iron melting process in cupola Burning the coke Air is supply to the coke bed Solid metal charged into the furnace through charging door The metal is alternated with layers of coke and drip down through the coke bed When the metal level is sufficiently high. tap hole is opened to collect the molten metal .

Melting Techniques b) Electric Arc .

Melting Techniques c) Induction .

Melting Techniques d) open-hearth .

Melting Techniques e) reverberatory .

-) Investment castings have the lowest tolerances that apply to ferrous and non-ferrous -) Sand casting has the largest tolerances .Factors Of Casting Process Factors to be Considered in evaluating/selecting a casting process: 1) Tolerance -) It is needed to compensate with shrinkage rate (1% -5%) -) Depend on nature of the metal being cast (melting point) and nature of process.

25 .5 – 2.5 Investment Casting 1.25 .25 – 2.25 – 17 Sand Casting 6.Factors Of Casting Process 2) Surface Finish Process Die casting Surface Roughness (μm) 0.5 Shell Molding 6.

Most cast-iron pipes are centrifugal casting 4) Materials . investment casting. centrifugal casting.Permanent mold and centrifugal casting suitable for ferrous metal . seldom longer than 450 mm .Factors Of Casting Process 3) Size Limitations .Large die casting may weight up to 18 kg . sand casting.Investment casting seldom exceed 13kg. and permanent mold can be applied to all common metal .Shell molding.No size limit for sand casting .

Sand casting required long time to process .Factors Of Casting Process 3) Casting cost . other process mostly metal mold and quite expensive .Time to build the hardware -sand casting is the simplest process .Depend on hardware used.Die casting is the fastest process 4) Availability . sand casting : hardware required is wooden pattern.

-) Compaction is performed in hardened steel tooling machine .Powder Metallurgy Powder Metallurgical Process 1) Blending of powders -) Metal powders in the size range from 10 to 80 µm. are blended to achieve the desired powder mix and to add compaction lubricants 2) Filling of compaction die -) The powder is fed into the open die 3) Compaction -) The upper and lower compaction tools then simultaneously compact the powder with pressure.

Powder Metallurgy Powder Metallurgical Process 4) Part ejection .Upper compaction punch retracts and the lower punch rises to eject the compacted shape 5) Sintering .