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SAP HANA is an in-memory, column-oriented,

relational database management system developed
and marketed by SAP. HANA's architecture is
designed to handle both high transaction rates and
complex query processing on the same platform. SAP
HANA was previously called SAP High-Performance
Analytic Appliance.

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What is SAP HANA?

SAP HANA stands for SAPs High-Performance Analytic
Appliance (HANA); it enables the processing of massive
quantities of data in the main memory of the server in real time.

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SAP is one of the largest ERP software and used by largest

business organizations throughout the world. SAP system enables
to store all the information they need and to perform all the business
functions like managing customer's data, purchase orders, vendors
data, manufacturing and so on. And SAP HANA is one of its module
that handles data in real time.
Some of the characteristics of SAP HANA are:
It is memory computing, where HANA itself is a database
Traditional database like oracle, d2b, stores the data in the disk
but the HANA stores data in the main memory, i.e., RAM

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Performance in SAP HANA is more as it runs on

multi-core CPUs and ten times faster than
current database systems
SAP HANA is a multi-query engine it supports all
the graphic data and text data in SAP system
Parallel processing
Columnar & Row based data storage
Data Compression

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HANA MAJOR Concepts:

SAP HANA Components.
Advantages of SAP HANA.
Why and Where to use SAP HANA?.
SAP HANA Architecture.
Row-based Table VS Column based Table in SAP HANA.
SAP HANA- Studio.
SAP HANA Data Replication or Data Provisioning.
SAP HANA Reporting.
Cloud Connectivity to SAP HANA.
SAP HANA Security.
Auditing in SAP HANA.

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SAP HANA Components:

SAP HANA DB: It is in-memory database
SAP HANA Studio: It refers to modeling tools provided
by SAP to model the data or HANA database
SAP HANA Appliance: It refers to the HANA database,
studio and other tools delivered as appliance
SAP HANA Application Cloud: It is also available on
cloud-based infrastructure

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Advantages of SAP HANA

Fast and easy to operate and helpful in real-time
decision making
Enhances the speed of transactional information flow in
Removes constraints for analyzing large data volumes
It increases business productivity
It manages growing data volume and complexity
Helps in managing risk in real-time
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Why and Where to use SAP HANA?

SAP HANA provides a single platform for integration of
transactional data and analytical data in a single database.
SAP HANA database is designed to run in main memory system
making it more powerful and fast in comparison to traditional
database system. Also, easy integration of SAP HANA with SAP
application provides accelerated data processing for existing
SAP application.
It makes application hundred times faster by moving computation
intensive processing logic from the application layer to the data

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SAP HANA can be used in various places like

Insurance sector
Health-care sector
Engineering construction and operation and so on.

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SAP HANA Architecture

SAP HANA database architecture consists of multiple servers, in
which the most important component or server is the Index
server. SAP HANA contains Name server, Index server,
Statistics server, Pre-processor server and XS engine.

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Functions performed by each server

Name Server: It maintains landscape information
Statistics Server: It gathers performance data about HANA and
give information about resource allocation in HANA
Persistence Layer: It is responsible for durability and atomicity
of transactions. It makes sure that the database can be restored
to its most recent committed state, either completely executed or
completely undone
Pre-Processor Server: It is used for text data analysis and

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XS Engine: Through this, client can connect SAP HANA

database to search data via HTTP. It allows an external
application to communicate with SAP HANA.
Index Server: It is the main server that handles database and
process the data. When MDX or SQL is fired against the SAP
HANA system in case of the transaction, the index server
handles it.

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Components of INDEX SERVER

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Connection and Session Management: This component is

used for managing and creating sessions and connections for
the database clients. Using SQL statements client can
communicate with the SAP HANA database
Authorization Manager: By other SAP HANA database
components, this component is invoked, it allows granting of
privileges or permissions to users which are accessed by
username and password
SQL Processor: The incoming SQL requests are received by
the SQL processor, while the rest will be diverted to other
components. Data definition statements are directed to metadata manager; transaction control are dispatched to the
Transactional Manager; Planning commands are directed to the
planning engine and procedure call are forwarded to the stored
procedure processor

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SQL Script: SQL script is a scripting language used in SAP

HANA database to offload data-intensive application logic into
Multidimensional Expression (MDX): It is a language for
querying and manipulating the multi-dimensional data stored in
OLAP cubes. Incoming MDX requests are processed by MDX
engine forwarded to the calculation engine
Planning Engine: It enables basic planning operations in the
database layer

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Calc Engine: The SAP HANA database include features such as

SQL script and planning operations are implemented using a
common infrastructure called Calc engine. The MDX, SQL Script,
Planning model and domain-specific models are converted into
calculation models. The calculation engine breaks up a model,
into operations that can be executed in parallel.
Transaction Manager: In HANA database, each SQL statement
is executed in the context of the transaction. Transaction
manager co-ordinates database transactions and keeps track of
running and closed transactions.
Meta-data Manager: Metadata consists of a variety of objects,
such as definitions of relational tables, views, indexes, columns
and procedures
The Row Store: It is the SAP HANA database row-based inmemory relational data engine.
The Column Store: The column store stores table column-wise
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Row-based Table VS Column based Table in SAP HANA

SQL queries that involve aggregation functions consume a lot of
time on huge amounts of data because every single row is
touched to collect the data for the query response. This
information in columnar table is physically aligned next to each
other, apparently increasing the speed of certain data queries.
In column arrangement, data is also compressed enabling
shorter loading times. Column based table is usually
recommended to store data as it allows fast aggregations, adhoc reporting and compression of data.
While, Row-based table is useful when application needs to only
process a single record or row at one time.

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HANA- in Memory Computing Engine

In memory means, all data is stored straight away in

the memory (RAM), there is no time wasted in loading
the data from hard disk to RAM. Data is stored in
the column as well as in row pattern; row is useful for
Metadata while Column is useful for -10-20x Data

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SAP HANA- Studio

SAP HANA studio is an Eclipse Open Integrated
Development Environment (IDE), that integrates
different tools in a unified environment for data
modeling activities, data and life cycle management
and security.
SAP HANA STUDIO can be used to start services,
stop services, monitor system, configure system
settings, manager users and authorization, manage
tables and manage stored procedures. Let see some
of the important components of SAP HANA studio.

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SAP HANA- Studio

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Information Modeler: SAP HANA information Models

consists of three views for the HANA Engine and
calculation operators they are
Attribute view (join text tables to each other) is used to
connect information about product, employees, business
partner etc.
Analytic View (joins fact tables like star schema
pattern) is used define facts for any product like number
or computer sold in any country.
Calculation View(performs complex calculations not
possible with others) is used to do calculation like
currency and unit conversion.
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Database development and Data provisioning: It

stores all objects into the SAP HANA Repository
Administration Monitoring Security: It provides
views that enable you to execute administrative tasks
on SAP HANA Instances
Application Developer: It provides views and menu
options that enable you to test your applications.

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SAP HANA Data Replication or Data Provisioning

For reporting and analysis of business data, it requires
replication of the data from a source system to the
SAP HANA database. In SAP HANA, data is
replicated while transferring to the memory database.
It can be done in two ways Application layer and
Log file.

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Application Layer:
a) Trigger-based replication: This method uses
the SAP Landscape Transformation
(SLT) component to pass data from the source
system to the SAP in-memory database target
b) ETL based replication: It uses SAP business
object data services to identify and load the relevant
business data in defined periods of time from an ERP
system into the SAP HANA database.

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Log File
Log-Based Replication or Sybase Replication:
This replication is based on the capturing table that
changes from low-level database log files.
Database changes are propagated on a per database
transaction basis, and they are then re-played on the SAP
HANA database.
This method is based on database dependent. The
replication agent uses table meta-data from the database
to connect or link the raw log information with the existing
table names.
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SAP HANA Reporting

SAP HANA offers different connectivity options such
as BICS, MDX and SQL, etc.
It runs JDBC and ODBC drivers which are
standardized programming interfaces to access
relational databases.
Multidimensional expressions or MDX is an extensive
query language for OLAP databases. Different front
end can connect to HANA, and SAP suggest using
frontends of the SAP business objects BI suite.

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Cloud Connectivity to SAP HANA

In SAP HANA, cloud platform is the platform-as-a-service
offering available for SAP HANA. SAP HANA can be
connected to cloud platform in two possible ways
Reverse Proxy Approach
Usage of SAP HANA connector as on-premise agent
SAP HANA cloud connectivity service is used to establish
the technical connectivity for point to point integration or in
combination with process integration solutions.
SAP HANA cloud can be connected through Remote
Service, On-premise Network and E-mail Provider.
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Cloud Connectivity to SAP HANA

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SAP HANA cloud platform consists of a Java API,

developer use this application to consume remote services
It enables account specific configuration of application
connections via mail destinations and HTTP
It provides a technical connectivity solution; that can be
used to establish a secure tunnel from the customer
network to an on-demand application in SAP HANA cloud
It enables to make the connection to both ABAP and JAVA
on-premise systems

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SAP HANA Security

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SAP HANA Security

In SAP HANA, database is stored in the file system of
the operating system. SAP HANA uses the secure
store in the file system (SSFS) to store all internal
SAP HANA encryption keys. These keys are
encrypted with the SSFS master key. The encryption
key always remains with customer and responsible for
decrypting, uncompressing and loading data into their
SAP HANA DB services.

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SAP HANA Database: To secure the data in SAP HANA, it

uses persistence layer to recover the data with minimum loss
in case of event of failure and with minimal delay
SAP HANA XS: It is fully integrated into the SAP HANA and
provide application server functions, accessible through
HTTP. If end users connect to the SAP HANA database
directly through an SQL client, user and role management in
the database layer of SAP HANA is needed for both
administrators and end users

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Encryption of data communication in the

network: Security Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport
Layer Security (TLS) are recommended and supported
for network communication
Communication Channel Security: SAP HANA
supports encrypted communication for network
communication channels, and it is recommended to use
encrypted channels in all cases where your network is not

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SSL configuration for Data Communication Channel: To

secure communication of data between systems, all hosts in
all systems must possess a public and private key pair and a
public key certificate for mutual authentication
SAP HANA Authentication: Users using the SAP HANA
database authenticate or verify themselves by entering their
database user name and password
SAML Assertion: SAML assertion is used to authenticate
users accessing SAP HANA directly from ODBC or
JDBCdatabase clients. SAP HANA can behave as a service
provider to verify or authenticate users accessing via HTTP
by means of SAP HANA XS

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Object Privileges: If a user wants to run a specific

statement on a simple database object, he or she must
have the corresponding object privilege for either the
actual object or the schema in which the object is located
Secure Password: By the standard operating system
mechanism file, system passwords are protected. All
database user passwords are hashed with the secure
hash algorithm SHA-256.

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Auditing in SAP HANA

Actions performed in SAP HANA can be audited.
Identifies security holes if too many privileges were
granted to some user
It shows the number of attempts made to breach
Protects the system owner against accusation of data
misuse and security violations
Allow the system owner to meet security standards

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Actions that are audited

Changes to user authorization
Deletion or creation of database objects
Authentication of users
Alteration to system configuration
Alteration of sensitive information

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