Niels Bohr

• Niels Bohr (lahir 7 Oktober 1885 – wafat 18 November 1962 pada umur 77 tahun) adalah seorang ahli fisika dari Denmark dan pernah meraih hadiah Nobel Fisika pada tahun 1922. • Pada tahun 1913 Bohr telah menerapkan konsep mekanika kuantum untuk model atom yang telah dikembangkan oleh Ernest Rutherford, yang menggambarkan bahwa atom tersusun dari inti atom (nukleus) yang dikelilingi oleh orbit elektron. • Putranya, Aage Niels Bohr, juga penerima Hadiah Nobel.


• he Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom (Z = 1) or a hydrogen-like ion (Z > 1), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small, positively charged atomic nucleus and where an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy (hν). The orbits in which the electron may travel are shown as grey circles; their radius increases as n2, where n is the principal quantum number. The 3 → 2 transition depicted here produces the first line of the Balmer series, and for hydrogen (Z = 1) it results in a photon of

• • 1. Classical mechanics The electron is held in a circular orbit by electrostatic attraction. The centripetal force is equal to the Coulomb force. where me is the mass, e is the charge of the electron and ke is Coulomb's constant. This determines the speed at any radius: It also determines the total energy at any radius: The total energy is negative and inversely proportional to r. This means that it takes energy to pull the orbiting electron away from the proton. For infinite values of r, the energy is zero, corresponding to a motionless electron infinitely far from the proton. The total energy is half the potential energy, which is true for non circular orbits too by the virial theorem. For larger nuclei, the only change is that kee2 is everywhere replaced by Zkee2 where Z is the number of protons. For positronium, me is replaced by its reduced mass (μ = me/2). 2. Quantum rule The angular momentum L = mevr is an integer multiple of ħ: Substituting the expression for the velocity gives an equation for r in terms of n: so that the allowed orbit radius at any n is: The smallest possible value of r is called the Bohr radius and is equal to: The energy of the n-th level is determined by the radius: An electron in the lowest energy level of hydrogen (n = 1) therefore has 13.6 eV less energy than a motionless electron infinitely far from the nucleus. The next energy level (n = 2) is −3.4 eV. The third (n = 3) is −1.51 eV, and so on. For larger values of n, these are also the binding energies of a highly excited atom with one electron in a large circular orbit around the rest of the atom.

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• Teori Atom Niels Bohr 1. Elektron dalam atom bergerak mengelilingi inti pada lintasan-lintasan tertentu, tidak memancarkan energi. Lintasanlintasan elektron itu disebut kulit atau tingkat energi elektron. 2. Elektron dapat berpindah dari satu lintasan ke lintasan yang lain. 3. Perpindahan elektron dari tingkat energi tinggi ke rendah disertai pemancaran energi. Sedang perpindahan elektron dari tingkat energi rendah ke tinggi disertai penyerapan energi. 4. Elektron yang bergerak pada lintasannya berada pada keadaan stasioner, artinya elektron tidak memancarkan atau menyerap energi. Walaupun model atom Bohr cukup untuk memodelkan spektrum hidrogen, model ini terbukti tidak cukup untuk memprediksikan spektrum elemen yang lebih kompleks.