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In this module you will learn about

Porosity

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Topic Overview

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

1 General Aspects

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2 Idealized
Models

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3
Measurments
of porosity

General aspects

Titlepage
Topic Overview

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

One may distinguish between two types of


porosity, namely absolute and effective
Absolute and effective porosity are distinguished
by their access capabilities to reservoir fluids

Permeabl
e
spaces
contribut
es
to
effective
porosity

Void spaces
contributes
to absolute
porosity

Art-micrograph of sandstone with oil

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Titlepage

Genetically the following types of porosity can be


distinguished:

Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Intergranular porosity
Fracture porosity
Micro- porosity
Vugular porosity
Intragranular porosity

Rock media having both fracture and


intergranular pores are called double-porous
or fracture-porous
media.

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Consolidated

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

From the point of view of pores susceptibility to mechanical


changes, one should distinguish between consolidated and
unconsolidated porous media

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Consolidated porous media pertain to sediments that have been


compacted and cemented to the degree that they become coherent,
relatively solid rock
A typical consequences of consolidation include an increase in density
and acoustic velocity, and a decrease in porosity

Sandstone with quartz cement and secondary


porosity

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Sorting

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Sorting is the tendency


of sedimentary rocks to
have grains that are
similarly sized--i.e., to
have a narrow range of
sizes
Poorly sorted sediment
displays a wide range
of grain sizes and
hence has decreased
porosity
Well-sorted indicates a
grain size distribution
that is fairly uniform
Depending on the type
of close-packing of the
grains, porosity can be
substantial.
Photomicrographs of sorting in sandstones

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Section 2:

Titlepage

Idealised Models

Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

Parallel cylindrical pores

Irregular-packed spheres with


different radii

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Regular orthorhombicpacked spheres


Regular cubic-packed spheres

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Regular rhombohedralpacked spheres

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Parallel Cylindrical Pores

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Estimation of porosity accounting to this model:

Vp r 2 n m

0,785 or 78,5%
Vb 2rn 2rm 4
rmn Vp Vb -

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pipe radius
number of cylinders contained in the bulk volume
pore volume
bulk volume

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Regular Cubic-Packed Spheres

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Estimation of porosity accounting to this model:

Vp Vb Vm

1 0,476 or 47,6%
Vb
Vb
6
Vp - pore volume
Vb - bulk volume ( 2r)3
Vm - matrix volume (volume of bulk space occupied by the rock)
1 4
4

r 3 8 r 3
8 3
3

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Regular Orthorhombic-Packed Spheres

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Estimation of porosity accounting to this model:

Vp Vb Vm
Vm
4r 3

1
1
0,395 or 39,5%
3
Vb
Vb
Vb
12 3r
Vb - bulk volume 2r 2r h 4r 3 sin 60 4 3r 3
4
Vm - matrix volume r 3
3
h - height of the orthorhombic - packed spheres

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Regular Rhombohedral-Packed Spheres

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Estimation of porosity accounting to this model:

Vp Vb Vm
Vm
4r 3

1
1
0,26 or 26,0%
3
Vb
Vb
Vb
12 2r
Vb - bulk volume 2r 2r h 4 2r 3
4
Vm - matrix volume r 3
3
h - height in the tetrahedron 4r 2 2r 2 2r

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Titlepage

Irregular-Packed Spheres with Different Radii

Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

The figure shows an example of an idealised


porous medium represented by four
populations of spheres (sorted by radii)
The histogram shows the hypothetical grainsize distribution.

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Example

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Porous medium blended with three types of sediment


fractions:

Fine pebble gravel


with porosity (pebble=0,30)

Sand (sand=0,38)

Fine sand ( f.sand=0,33)

Vp

f .sand sand pebble 0,037 or 3,7%


Vb
tot .

Vp f.sandVf.sand f.sandsandVsand f.sandsandpebbleVpebble

f.sandsandpebble
Vb
Vpebble
Vpebble
Vpebble

Vp f.sandVf.sand, Vb Vpebble

Vf.sand sandVsand, Vsand pebbleVpebble


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Titlepage

Well Logs

MeasurementCore
ofAnalysis
porosity

Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Measurement of
Porosity

Uncertaint
y

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Core Analysis
Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects

Full-diameter
Core Analysis

Grain-volume
measurements based
on Boyle`s law

2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Fluid-Summation
Method
Bulk-volume
measurements

Pore-volume
measurements
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Section 3.1:

Titlepage
Topic Overview

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Used to measure the porosity of rocks that are


distinctly heterogeneous. (Ex: carbonates and
fissured vugular rocks)
The same core-plug is a non-representative
elementary volume for this type of rock.
In heterogeneous rocks, the local porosity may be
highly variable.
It may include:

Full-diameter Core Analysis

micro-porosity
intergranular porosity
vugues
fractures various combinations of these.

A full-diameter core sample usually has a diameter


of 5 inches (12,5 cm) and a length of 10 inches (25
cm)
Does not differentiate between the actual types of
porosity involved.

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Section 3.2:
Titlepage
Topic Overview

Grain-Volume Measurements
Based on Boyle`s Law

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Porosity measurements based on


the Boyle`s law

Injection and decompression of gas into the pores of


a fluid-free (vacuum), dry core sample.
Either the pore volume or the grain volume can be
determined, depending upon the instrumentation
and procedures.

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Section 3.2:
Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

Grain-Volume Measurements
Based on Boyle`s Law

Helium gas is often used due to its following


properties:

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

The small size of helium molecules makes the gas rapidly


penetrate small pores
Helium is an inert gas that will not be absorbed on the rock
surface and thus yield erroneous results

Alternatives: N2 and CO2

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Section 3.2:
Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects

Calculation of the grain volume

Measuremen
ts of Porosity

pV nRT

Ideal gas law:

In case of vacuum inside the sample chamber:

2 Idealised Models
3

Grain-Volume Measurements
Based on Boyle`s Law

p1V1 p2V

Assuming adiabatic conditions, we obtains:

p1Vref p2 (Vref Vs Vg )

Vg
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p2Vref p2Vs p1Vref


p2
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Section 3.3:

Titlepage

Bulk-Volume Measurements

Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

This technique uses the Archimedes` principle of


mass displacement:

The core sample is first saturated with a wetting fluid and then
weighed.

The sample is then submerged in the same fluid and its


submerged weight is measured.

The bulk volume is the difference between the two


weights divided by the density of the fluid

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Section 3.3:

Titlepage

Bulk-Volume Measurements

Topic Overview
1 General Aspects

Fluids normally used:

2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Water which can easily be evaporated afterwards.

Mercury which normally not enters the pore space in a core


sample due to its non-wetting capability and its large
interfacial energy against air.

A very accurate measurement, with a uncertainty of


0,2%.

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Section 3.3:

Titlepage
Topic Overview

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

Example: Uncertainty analysis in measuring the bulk


volume using Archimedes` principle.
The core is measured in two steps:

Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Bulk-Volume Measurements

Weighing the sample in a cup of water; m 1


(Assuming
100% water saturation)
Then weighting the sample in air as it is removed from the cup;
m2
m m

The bulk volume is:Vb

Differentiating the equation above gives us:

dVb

Vb
V
V
dm2 b dm1 b drw
m2
m1
rw

d w
m2 m1 dm2
dm1
dVb

w m2 m1 m2 m1 w
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Section 3.3:

Titlepage
Topic Overview

Bulk-Volume Measurements

If the density measurement as well as the two massmeasurements above, is considered to be


independent measurements, the relative
uncertainty in the bulk volume
is:
2
2
2
Vb
m
w

w
m2 m1
Vb

It may also be written as:

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Vb
m
w

Vb
wVb
w

If the uncertainty in determined the water density is


estimated to 0,1% and the weighting accuracy is
equal to 0,1g , we find a relative uncertainty in the
bulk volume of approximately 0,5%.

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Section 3.4:

Titlepage
Topic Overview

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

Pore-Volume Measurements

A core sample is placed in a rubber sleeve holder


that has no voids space around.
This is called a Hassler holder, see fig.

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Helium or one of its substitutes is injected into the


core plug through the end stem.

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Topic Overview

Pore-Volume Measurements

Section 3.4:

Titlepage

Calculations of the pore volume

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

p0V p p1Vref nRT

p2 V p Vref nRT

Measuremen
ts of Porosity

and

Vp

p1 p2 V

p2 p0 ref

where p1 p2 p0

It is important to notice that the Hassler core holder


has to be coupled to a volume of known reference,
Vref.

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage
Topic Overview

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Technique is to measure the volume of gas, oil and


water present in the pore space of a fresh or
preserved core of known bulk volume.
The core sample is divided into two parts:

Fluid-Summation Method

One part (ca. 100 g) is crushed and placed in a fluid-extraction


resort. Vaporised water and oil move down and are collected in
a calibrated glassware, where their volumes are measured.
Second part of the rock sample (ca. 30 g) is weighed and then
placed in a pycnometer, filled with mercury. The bulk volume is
determined, measuring the volume of the displaced mercury.

Then the pressure of the mercury, PHg , is raised to


70 bar. At this pressure mercury are filling the pore
space originally occupied with gas. Gas volume can
then be calculated

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

Fluid-Summation Method

The laboratory procedure provides the following


information:

First sub sample gives the rock`s weight, W S1 , and the


volumes of oil, Vo1 , and water, VW1 , are recorded.

Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Second sub sample gives the volume of gas, V g2 , and the


rock`s bulk volume, Vb2.

Fraction of the gas-bulk volume:

Also:

fg

Vg 2
Vb 2

Ws1 Vb1 app and Ws 2 Vb 2 app Vb1 Vb 2

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S g
Ws1
Ws 2

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage
Topic Overview

Fluid-Summation Method

The formation oil- and water factor are calculated as follow:

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

V
f o o1 S o
Vb1

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Vw1
fw
S w
Vb1

The sum of the fluid-volume factor then gives the porosity value:

f o f w f g So S w S g

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage
Topic Overview

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Fluid-Summation Method

Example: Use of pycnometer in matrix volume


calculation.
In order to define the matrix volume, Vm , of a core
sample, the following measuring steps are carried
out:
1. The pycnometer cell is fully saturated with mercury.
2. The pycnometer piston is withdrawn and a gas (air) volume of
V0 is measured.
3. The core sample is placed in the cell, and the cell volume is
sealed. The equilibrium condition inside the cell is written:
4. Mercury is injected into the cell and a new gas volume, V 1 , and
pressure,
is measured.
5. New equilibrium ispreached
0 V0 Vmand we write:

Finally; the matrix volume is found as follows:

p1 V1 Vm
Vm
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p1V1 p0V0
p1 p0
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Porosity Estimation from Geophysical Well Logs

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

Porosity can be estimated from:

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Formation resistivity factor


Microresistivity log
Neutron-gamma log
Density (gamma-gamma) log
Acoustic (sonic) log

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Potential Error in Porosity Estimation

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models

Experimental data
Involve a degree of uncertainty related to the possible
measurement errors

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

The measurement of porosity is normally a function of


Vp, Vm and/or Vb

f (Vm ,V p ,Vb )

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Potential Error in Porosity Estimation

Titlepage
Topic Overview

If the porosity is defined as

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

Vp
Vb

The equation can be differentiated

d dV p dVb

Vp
Vb
The potential error of prosity measurement is
then
2

V p
Vb

Vb
Vp
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FAQ

Titlepage
Topic Overview

Add Q&A

1 General Aspects
2 Idealised Models
3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

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References

Titlepage
Topic Overview
1 General Aspects

Figures taken with permission from the authors of


Reservoarteknikk1: A.B. Zolotukhin and J.-R. Ursin

2 Idealised Models

Figures also taken with permission from Ola Ketil Siqveland

3
Measuremen
ts of Porosity

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