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Porosity powerpoint

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Porosity

Topic Overview

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

1 General Aspects

Developer

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2 Idealized

Models

Reference

s

3

Measurments

of porosity

General aspects

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

porosity, namely absolute and effective

Absolute and effective porosity are distinguished

by their access capabilities to reservoir fluids

Permeabl

e

spaces

contribut

es

to

effective

porosity

Void spaces

contributes

to absolute

porosity

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Titlepage

distinguished:

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Intergranular porosity

Fracture porosity

Micro- porosity

Vugular porosity

Intragranular porosity

intergranular pores are called double-porous

or fracture-porous

media.

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Consolidated

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

changes, one should distinguish between consolidated and

unconsolidated porous media

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

compacted and cemented to the degree that they become coherent,

relatively solid rock

A typical consequences of consolidation include an increase in density

and acoustic velocity, and a decrease in porosity

porosity

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Sorting

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

of sedimentary rocks to

have grains that are

similarly sized--i.e., to

have a narrow range of

sizes

Poorly sorted sediment

displays a wide range

of grain sizes and

hence has decreased

porosity

Well-sorted indicates a

grain size distribution

that is fairly uniform

Depending on the type

of close-packing of the

grains, porosity can be

substantial.

Photomicrographs of sorting in sandstones

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Section 2:

Titlepage

Idealised Models

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

different radii

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Regular cubic-packed spheres

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vp r 2 n m

0,785 or 78,5%

Vb 2rn 2rm 4

rmn Vp Vb -

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s

pipe radius

number of cylinders contained in the bulk volume

pore volume

bulk volume

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vp Vb Vm

1 0,476 or 47,6%

Vb

Vb

6

Vp - pore volume

Vb - bulk volume ( 2r)3

Vm - matrix volume (volume of bulk space occupied by the rock)

1 4

4

r 3 8 r 3

8 3

3

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vp Vb Vm

Vm

4r 3

1

1

0,395 or 39,5%

3

Vb

Vb

Vb

12 3r

Vb - bulk volume 2r 2r h 4r 3 sin 60 4 3r 3

4

Vm - matrix volume r 3

3

h - height of the orthorhombic - packed spheres

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vp Vb Vm

Vm

4r 3

1

1

0,26 or 26,0%

3

Vb

Vb

Vb

12 2r

Vb - bulk volume 2r 2r h 4 2r 3

4

Vm - matrix volume r 3

3

h - height in the tetrahedron 4r 2 2r 2 2r

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

porous medium represented by four

populations of spheres (sorted by radii)

The histogram shows the hypothetical grainsize distribution.

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Example

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

fractions:

with porosity (pebble=0,30)

Sand (sand=0,38)

Vp

Vb

tot .

f.sandsandpebble

Vb

Vpebble

Vpebble

Vpebble

Vp f.sandVf.sand, Vb Vpebble

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Titlepage

Well Logs

MeasurementCore

ofAnalysis

porosity

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Measurement of

Porosity

Uncertaint

y

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Core Analysis

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

Full-diameter

Core Analysis

Grain-volume

measurements based

on Boyle`s law

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Fluid-Summation

Method

Bulk-volume

measurements

Pore-volume

measurements

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Section 3.1:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

distinctly heterogeneous. (Ex: carbonates and

fissured vugular rocks)

The same core-plug is a non-representative

elementary volume for this type of rock.

In heterogeneous rocks, the local porosity may be

highly variable.

It may include:

micro-porosity

intergranular porosity

vugues

fractures various combinations of these.

of 5 inches (12,5 cm) and a length of 10 inches (25

cm)

Does not differentiate between the actual types of

porosity involved.

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Section 3.2:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

Grain-Volume Measurements

Based on Boyle`s Law

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

the Boyle`s law

a fluid-free (vacuum), dry core sample.

Either the pore volume or the grain volume can be

determined, depending upon the instrumentation

and procedures.

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Section 3.2:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

Grain-Volume Measurements

Based on Boyle`s Law

properties:

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

penetrate small pores

Helium is an inert gas that will not be absorbed on the rock

surface and thus yield erroneous results

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Section 3.2:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

pV nRT

2 Idealised Models

3

Grain-Volume Measurements

Based on Boyle`s Law

p1V1 p2V

p1Vref p2 (Vref Vs Vg )

Vg

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p2

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Section 3.3:

Titlepage

Bulk-Volume Measurements

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

mass displacement:

The core sample is first saturated with a wetting fluid and then

weighed.

submerged weight is measured.

weights divided by the density of the fluid

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Section 3.3:

Titlepage

Bulk-Volume Measurements

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

sample due to its non-wetting capability and its large

interfacial energy against air.

0,2%.

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Section 3.3:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

volume using Archimedes` principle.

The core is measured in two steps:

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Bulk-Volume Measurements

(Assuming

100% water saturation)

Then weighting the sample in air as it is removed from the cup;

m2

m m

dVb

Vb

V

V

dm2 b dm1 b drw

m2

m1

rw

d w

m2 m1 dm2

dm1

dVb

w m2 m1 m2 m1 w

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Section 3.3:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

Bulk-Volume Measurements

independent measurements, the relative

uncertainty in the bulk volume

is:

2

2

2

Vb

m

w

w

m2 m1

Vb

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vb

m

w

Vb

wVb

w

estimated to 0,1% and the weighting accuracy is

equal to 0,1g , we find a relative uncertainty in the

bulk volume of approximately 0,5%.

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Section 3.4:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

Pore-Volume Measurements

that has no voids space around.

This is called a Hassler holder, see fig.

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

core plug through the end stem.

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Topic Overview

Pore-Volume Measurements

Section 3.4:

Titlepage

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

p2 V p Vref nRT

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

and

Vp

p1 p2 V

p2 p0 ref

where p1 p2 p0

has to be coupled to a volume of known reference,

Vref.

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

water present in the pore space of a fresh or

preserved core of known bulk volume.

The core sample is divided into two parts:

Fluid-Summation Method

resort. Vaporised water and oil move down and are collected in

a calibrated glassware, where their volumes are measured.

Second part of the rock sample (ca. 30 g) is weighed and then

placed in a pycnometer, filled with mercury. The bulk volume is

determined, measuring the volume of the displaced mercury.

70 bar. At this pressure mercury are filling the pore

space originally occupied with gas. Gas volume can

then be calculated

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

Fluid-Summation Method

information:

volumes of oil, Vo1 , and water, VW1 , are recorded.

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

rock`s bulk volume, Vb2.

Also:

fg

Vg 2

Vb 2

Developer

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S g

Ws1

Ws 2

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

Fluid-Summation Method

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

V

f o o1 S o

Vb1

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vw1

fw

S w

Vb1

The sum of the fluid-volume factor then gives the porosity value:

f o f w f g So S w S g

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Section 3.5:

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Fluid-Summation Method

calculation.

In order to define the matrix volume, Vm , of a core

sample, the following measuring steps are carried

out:

1. The pycnometer cell is fully saturated with mercury.

2. The pycnometer piston is withdrawn and a gas (air) volume of

V0 is measured.

3. The core sample is placed in the cell, and the cell volume is

sealed. The equilibrium condition inside the cell is written:

4. Mercury is injected into the cell and a new gas volume, V 1 , and

pressure,

is measured.

5. New equilibrium ispreached

0 V0 Vmand we write:

p1 V1 Vm

Vm

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p1V1 p0V0

p1 p0

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Microresistivity log

Neutron-gamma log

Density (gamma-gamma) log

Acoustic (sonic) log

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

Experimental data

Involve a degree of uncertainty related to the possible

measurement errors

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vp, Vm and/or Vb

f (Vm ,V p ,Vb )

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Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Vp

Vb

d dV p dVb

Vp

Vb

The potential error of prosity measurement is

then

2

V p

Vb

Vb

Vp

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FAQ

Titlepage

Topic Overview

Add Q&A

1 General Aspects

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Developer

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References

Titlepage

Topic Overview

1 General Aspects

Reservoarteknikk1: A.B. Zolotukhin and J.-R. Ursin

2 Idealised Models

3

Measuremen

ts of Porosity

Developer

s

Reference

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