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analysis of

moment
resisting
connections

basic principles
of connection
design
Provide as direct a load
path as possible
Avoid complex stress
conditions
Weld in the shop, bolt
on site

Welded
connections

moment connection of an I-Beam


Bending moment is
carried mainly by the
flanges
Therefore connect
flanges for moment
transfer

moment connection of an I-Beam


Welded connection
C=T
Fillet welds
Full penetration
welds
Compression transfer
d
can also be
accomplished through
direct bearing

Resultant tension force T = M/d

shear connection of an I-Beam


Shear is carried
mainly by the web
Therefore connect the
web for shear
transfer

shear connection of an I-Beam


Fillet welds in shear
are commonly used
Connect entire web
and adjust weld size
to suit shear load

moment connection of a plate


Stress in weld
= M (d/2) / I
= M (d/2) / (ad3/12) [kN/m2]
q =a
= M (d/2) / (d3/12)
= M (d/2) / I [kN/m]
Where
I = I/a

M
d

Then choose a weld size a that will


carry q
q = .a
where a = weld size

moment connection of a plate


Can also use simplified
approach:
Break moment into a
force couple
Choose a suitable weld
size
Then calculate the
required length of the
weld to carry the tension
force T

C=T

Resultant tension force T = M/d

M
d

q = T/l
where l = weld length

welded shear plate


V
V
Centroid
of weld
group

M = V.e

simplified approach
Break eccentric load
up into a vertical
force along the
vertical weld and a
pair (couple) of
horizontal forces
along the horizontal
welds
Then choose
lengths of welds to
carry the calculated
forces

V.e/d
V
d

V.e/d
e

Stress calculations

+
M = V.e

M = V.e

Stress calculations for vertical force V


qV

Divide shear equally


amongst all the weld lines
q = V / (total length of weld)
Choose a weld size that can
carry the stress q
Note q is actually a force
per length [kN/m]

Stress calculations for Moment M = V.e


xB

xA

Treat the weld group as a crosssection subjected to a torsional


moment

A qAx
qAy qAM

yA

qAx = M yA / Ip
qAy = M xA / Ip

M = V.e
qBy

qBM
qBx

Ip2 = Ix2 + Iy2


where I = I/a

yB

qAM = (qAx2 + qAy2)0.5


Similarly for point B
Then select weld size for max. q

Stress calculations for combined V and M


A

qAx

qAy
V

qAV
qA
M = V.e

Combine the weld stress


components from the vertical
force and the torsional moment

qA = [qAx2 + (qAV + qAy)2]0.5


Similarly for point B or any other
point that might be critical
Then select weld size for the
maximum value of q

example of a complex connection

Column tree for Times Square 4, NYC

bolted connections

moment
splice in a
column

moment splice of an I-Beam


Bolted connection
C=T
Divide tension and
compression resultant
equally between bolts

M
d

Resultant tension force T = M/d

shear
connection in
bridge
diaphragm
girder
(Alex Fraser
Bridge)

shear connection of an I-Beam


Bolted connections to
transfer shear are
commonly used
Connect entire web to
avoid stress
concentrations and
shear lag

End plate
Coped flanges to fit in
between column
flanges

shear connection via end plate

moment connection with and


end or base plate

moment connection with fully


welded end plate
Tmax

Ti = Tmax (hi / hmax)


Ti

M = Ti hi

hmax
hi

C = Ti

pre-tensioned moment connection

pre-tensioned Moment
Connection
Apply both tension and
compression forces to pretensioned bolts.
Compression force can be
seen as a release of the
tension force.

Ti

+
TM

bolted shear plate


e

P
P

Centroid of
bolt group

M = Pe

vertical load
VP

Divide the force by


n, the number of
bolts
VP = P / n

VP

moment
xi

Treat the bolt group as a


cross-section subjected to a
torsional moment

bolt i

FxM
ri

FyM

FMi

yi

Ip = i A ri2
= i A (xi2 + yi2)
and with IP = IP/A
FxM = M yi / Ip
FyM = M xi / Ip

bolt area A

FMi = (FxM2 + FyM2)0.5


Then select a bolt size for the

combined vertical force and


moment
FxM
FyM

Fmax

VP

M = Pe

Fmax = [FxM2 + (FyM + VP)2]0.5


Then select a bolt size for the
maximum force Fmax