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# analysis of

moment
resisting
connections

basic principles
of connection
design
path as possible
Avoid complex stress
conditions
Weld in the shop, bolt
on site

Welded
connections

## moment connection of an I-Beam

Bending moment is
carried mainly by the
flanges
Therefore connect
flanges for moment
transfer

## moment connection of an I-Beam

Welded connection
C=T
Fillet welds
Full penetration
welds
Compression transfer
d
can also be
accomplished through
direct bearing

## shear connection of an I-Beam

Shear is carried
mainly by the web
Therefore connect the
web for shear
transfer

## shear connection of an I-Beam

Fillet welds in shear
are commonly used
Connect entire web

## moment connection of a plate

Stress in weld
= M (d/2) / I
= M (d/2) / (ad3/12) [kN/m2]
q =a
= M (d/2) / (d3/12)
= M (d/2) / I [kN/m]
Where
I = I/a

M
d

## Then choose a weld size a that will

carry q
q = .a
where a = weld size

## moment connection of a plate

Can also use simplified
approach:
Break moment into a
force couple
Choose a suitable weld
size
Then calculate the
required length of the
weld to carry the tension
force T

C=T

## Resultant tension force T = M/d

M
d

q = T/l
where l = weld length

## welded shear plate

V
V
Centroid
of weld
group

M = V.e

simplified approach
up into a vertical
force along the
vertical weld and a
pair (couple) of
horizontal forces
along the horizontal
welds
Then choose
lengths of welds to
carry the calculated
forces

V.e/d
V
d

V.e/d
e

Stress calculations

+
M = V.e

M = V.e

qV

## Divide shear equally

amongst all the weld lines
q = V / (total length of weld)
Choose a weld size that can
carry the stress q
Note q is actually a force
per length [kN/m]

xB

xA

moment

A qAx
qAy qAM

yA

qAx = M yA / Ip
qAy = M xA / Ip

M = V.e
qBy

qBM
qBx

where I = I/a

yB

## qAM = (qAx2 + qAy2)0.5

Similarly for point B
Then select weld size for max. q

A

qAx

qAy
V

qAV
qA
M = V.e

## Combine the weld stress

components from the vertical
force and the torsional moment

## qA = [qAx2 + (qAV + qAy)2]0.5

Similarly for point B or any other
point that might be critical
Then select weld size for the
maximum value of q

## Column tree for Times Square 4, NYC

bolted connections

moment
splice in a
column

## moment splice of an I-Beam

Bolted connection
C=T
Divide tension and
compression resultant
equally between bolts

M
d

shear
connection in
bridge
diaphragm
girder
(Alex Fraser
Bridge)

## shear connection of an I-Beam

Bolted connections to
transfer shear are
commonly used
Connect entire web to
avoid stress
concentrations and
shear lag

End plate
Coped flanges to fit in
between column
flanges

## moment connection with and

end or base plate

welded end plate
Tmax

Ti

M = Ti hi

hmax
hi

C = Ti

## pre-tensioned moment connection

pre-tensioned Moment
Connection
Apply both tension and
compression forces to pretensioned bolts.
Compression force can be
seen as a release of the
tension force.

Ti

+
TM

e

P
P

Centroid of
bolt group

M = Pe

VP

n, the number of
bolts
VP = P / n

VP

moment
xi

## Treat the bolt group as a

cross-section subjected to a
torsional moment

bolt i

FxM
ri

FyM

FMi

yi

Ip = i A ri2
= i A (xi2 + yi2)
and with IP = IP/A
FxM = M yi / Ip
FyM = M xi / Ip

bolt area A

## FMi = (FxM2 + FyM2)0.5

Then select a bolt size for the

moment
FxM
FyM

Fmax

VP

M = Pe

## Fmax = [FxM2 + (FyM + VP)2]0.5

Then select a bolt size for the
maximum force Fmax