9 views

Uploaded by Ram Gopal Vetukuri

full in detail about the types of multiplexing

- ch06-SLIDE-[2]Data Communications and Networking By Behrouz A.Forouzan
- syllabus_msc_physics_2014.pdf
- Handout 2
- 01.Basic Concepts
- OPTICAL COMMUNICATION.pdf
- STM-1 Mux Demux Brochure
- • Analog and Digital • Aperiodic and Periodic Signals •
- IES - Electrical Engineering - Communication System
- ADDITIONAL NOTES.doc
- Telecommunications Switching Systems 4
- electronics 2
- PLM01 St7537 App Note
- 64QAM_ofdm
- MIMO project
- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
- BulSU2_est_part.doc
- II Midsem Answer Key Final
- Ce- 6th sem (MST 3) (EET354).docx
- nw
- Syllabus

You are on page 1of 62

than one message to be transferred via the same

communication channel. The channel in this context could be a

transmission line, e.g. a twisted pair or co-axial cable, a radio

system or a fibre optic system etc.

A channel

a time t, where t may . Thus, with reference to the channel

there are 2 degrees of freedom, i.e. bandwidth or frequency

and time.

1

Multiplexing

CHANNEL

BL

BH

freq

BH

users to occupy the

channel for the duration in time that the

channel is available.

BL

Frequency

Time t

v s (t ) Amp cos(t )

Multiplexing

Various multiplexing methods are possible in terms of the channel bandwidth and time,

and the signal, in particular the frequency, phase or time. The two basic methods are:

1) Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM

FDM is derived from AM techniques in which the signals occupy the same physical

line but in different frequency bands. Each signal occupies its own specific band of

frequencies all the time, i.e. the messages share the channel bandwidth.

2) Time Division Multiplexing TDM

TDM is derived from sampling techniques in which messages occupy all the channel

bandwidth but for short time intervals of time, i.e. the messages share the channel time.

FDM messages occupy narrow bandwidth all the time.

TDM messages occupy wide bandwidth for short intervals of time.

Multiplexing

These two basic methods are illustrated below.

time

time

M1

BL

M2

B

M3

BL

M4

M1

M5

M4 M5

M2 M3

t

BH

BH

freq

freq

t

BL

BH

M1

M2

M1

M3

M2

M3

M4

M5

M4

BH

M5

BL

FDM

TDM

FDM is widely used in radio and television systems (e.g.

broadcast radio and TV) and was widely used in

multichannel telephony (now being superseded by digital

techniques and TDM).

The multichannel telephone system illustrates some

important aspects and is considered below. For speech,

a bandwidth of 3kHz is satisfactory.

The physical line, e.g. a co-axial cable will have a

bandwidth compared to speech as shown next

5

3kHz

freq

GHz

From AM we have noted:

m(t)

m(t)

freq

DSBSC

carrier

cos( c t )

DSBSC

freq

fc

In order to use bandwidth more effectively, SSB is used i.e.

SSB

Filter

m(t)

SSBSC

carrier

cos( c t )

freq

fc

We have also noted that the message signal m(t) is usually band limited, i.e.

Speech

Band

Limiting

Filter

300Hz 3400Hz

m(t)

SSB

Filter

cos( c t )

SSBSC

The Band Limiting Filter (BLF) is usually a band pass filter with a pass band 300Hz to

3400Hz for speech. This is to allow guard bands between adjacent channels.

f

10kHz

Speech

f

300Hz

3400Hz

m(t)

f

300Hz

3400Hz

Convention

For telephony, the physical line is divided (notionally) into 4kHz bands or channels, i.e.

the channel spacing is 4kHz. Thus we now have:

Guard Bands

Bandlimited

Speech

4kHz

Note, the BLF does not have an ideal cut-off the guard bands allow for filter roll off

in order to reduce adjacent channel crosstalk.

9

Consider now a single channel SSB system.

The spectra will be

m(t)

DSBSC

BLF

SSB

Filter

SSBSC

fc

m(t)

freq

300Hz

3400Hz

DSBSC

freq

fc

freq

fc

10

Consider now a system with 3 channels

m1(t)

f

SSB

Filter

BLF

fc1

m2(t)

SSB

Filter

BLF

f

fc2

FDM

Signal

M(t)

f2

SSB

Filter

BLF

m3(t)

f1

fc3

f3

Bandlimited

FDM Transmitter

or Encoder

11

Each carrier frequency, fc1, fc2 and fc3 are separated by the channel spacing

frequency, in this case 4 kHz, i.e. fc2 = fc1 + 4kHz, fc3 = fc2 + 4kHz.

The spectrum of the FDM signal, M(t) will be:

4kHz

4kHz

M(t)

4kHz

Shaded areas are to

show guard bands.

f1

fc1

f3

f2

fc2

fc3

freq

12

Note that the baseband signals m1(t), m2(t), m3(t) have been multiplexed into adjacent

channels, the channel spacing is 4kHz. Note also that the SSB filters are set to select

the USB, tuned to f1, f2 and f3 respectively. A receiver FDM decoder is illustrated below:

SSB

Filter

f1

M(t)

FDM

Signal

LPF

fc1

SSB

Filter

f2

Band

Limited

LPF

m2(t)

Back to

baseband

fc2

SSB

Filter

f3

m1(t)

LPF

fc3

m3(t)

13

The SSB filters are the same as in the encoder, i.e. each one

centred on f1, f2 and f3 to select the appropriate sideband and reject

the others. These are then followed by a synchronous demodulator,

each fed with a synchronous LO, fc1, fc2 and fc3 respectively.

For the 3 channel system shown there is 1 design for the BLF (used

3 times), 3 designs for the SSB filters (each used twice) and 1

design for the LPF (used 3 times).

channels, for example 3600 channels is typical. The bandwidth used

is thus 3600 x 4kHz = 14.4Mhz. Potentially therefore there are 3600

different SSB filter designs. Not only this, but the designs must

range from kHz to MHz.

14

For designs around say 60kHz, Q

60kHz

= 15 which is reasonable.

4 kHz

10,000kHz

gives a Q = 2500 which is difficult to achieve.

Q

4 kHz

To overcome these problems, a hierarchical system for telephony used the FDM

principle to form groups, supergroups, master groups and supermaster groups.

15

The diagram below illustrates the FDM principle for 12 channels (similar to 3 channels)

to a form a basic group.

m1(t)

m2(t)

m3(t)

Multiplexer

freq

m12(t)

12kHz

60kHz

i.e. 12 telephone channels are multiplexed in the frequency band 12kHz 60 kHz in

4kHz channels basic group.

16

A design for a basic 12 channel group is shown below:

Band Limiting Filters

DSBSC

4kHz

CH1

m1(t)

8.6 15.4kHz

300Hz

3400kHz

SSB Filter

12.3 15.4kHz

f1 = 12kHz

4kHz

12.6 19.4kHz

CH2

m2(t)

300Hz

16.3 19.4kHz

3400kHz

f1 = 16kHz

FDM OUT

12 60kHz

4kHz

52.6 59.4kHz

CH12

m12(t)

300Hz

56.3 59.4kHz

3400kHz

f12 = 56kHz

17

Super Group

These basic groups may now be multiplexed to form a super group.

12

Inputs

BASIC

GROUP

12 60kHz

SSB

FILTER

420kHz

12

Inputs

BASIC

GROUP

12 60kHz

SSB

FILTER

468kHz

12

Inputs

BASIC

GROUP

12 60kHz

SSB

FILTER

516kHz

12

Inputs

BASIC

GROUP

12 60kHz

SSB

FILTER

564kHz

12

Inputs

BASIC

GROUP

12 60kHz

SSB

FILTER

612kHz

18

Super Group

5 basic groups multiplexed to form a super group, i.e. 60 channels in one super group.

Note the channel spacing in the super group in the above is 48kHz, i.e. each carrier

frequency is separated by 48kHz. There are 12 designs (low frequency) for one basic

group and 5 designs for the super group.

612 kHz

12 - which is reasonable

The Q for the super group SSB filters is Q

48kHz

Hence, a total of 17 designs are required for 60 channels. In a similar way, super groups

may be multiplexed to form a master group, and master groups to form super master

groups

19

TDM is widely used in digital communications, for example in the form of pulse code

modulation in digital telephony (TDM/PCM). In TDM, each message signal occupies

the channel (e.g. a transmission line) for a short period of time. The principle is

illustrated below:

1

m1(t)

2

m2(t)

m3(t)

m4(t)

m5(t)

m1(t)

2

Tx

4

5

Rx

SW2

SW1

Transmission

Line

m2(t)

4

5

m3(t)

m4(t)

m5(t)

Switches SW1 and SW2 rotate in synchronism, and in effect sample each message

input in a sequence m1(t), m2(t), m3(t), m4(t), m5(t), m1(t), m2(t),

The sampled value (usually in digital form) is transmitted and recovered at the far end

to produce output m1(t)m5(t).

20

For ease of illustration consider such a system with 3 messages, m1(t), m2(t) and m3(t),

each a different DC level as shown below.

m1(t)

V1

t

0

m2(t)

V2

0

m3(t)

V3

0

SW1

Sample

t

Position

21

V3

V2

V1

t

m1(t)

m2(t)

m3(t)

m1(t)

m2(t)

m3(t)

m1(t)

Channel

Time

Slots

1

t

Time slot

22

In this illustration the samples are shown as levels, i.e. V1, V2 or V3.

Normally, these voltages would be converted to a binary code before

transmission as discussed below.

Note that the channel is divided into time slots and in this example, 3

messages are time-division multiplexed on to the channel. The sampling

process requires that the message signals are a sampled at a rate fs 2B,

where fs is the sample rate, samples per second, and B is the maximum

frequency in the message signal, m(t) (i.e. Sampling Theorem applies). This

sampling process effectively produces a pulse train, which requires a

bandwidth much greater than B.

Thus in TDM, the message signals occupy a wide bandwidth for short

intervals of time. In the illustration above, the signals are shown as PAM

(Pulse Amplitude Modulation) signals. In practice these are normally

converted to digital signals before time division multiplexing.

23

A schematic diagram to illustrate the principle for 3 message signals is shown below.

m1(t)

S/H

BLF

PAM

1

fs1

m2(t)

BLF

S/H

PAM

2

S/H

PAM

3

fs2

m3(t)

BLF

Multiplexing

Analogue

To

Digital

Convertor

Serial output

Binary digital

data d(t)

fs3

Band limiting

Filter 0 B Hz

Sample rate fs

fs 2B Hz

Multiplexing ADC

Converts each input

in turn to an n bit code.

24

25

26

Each sample value is converted to an n bit code by the ADC. Each n bit code fits into

the time slot for that particular message. In practice, the sample pulses for each

message input could be the same. The multiplexing ADC could pick each input

(i.e. a S/H signal) in turn for conversion.

For an N channel system, i.e. N message signals, sampled at a rate fs samples per

second, with each sample converted to an n bit binary code, and assuming no

additional bits for synchronisation are required (in practice further bits are required) it is

easy to see that the output bit rate for the digital data sequence d(t) is

27

Computer Engineering

University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Prof. Rolando Carrasco

Lecture Notes

University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

2005

Bandwidth

B denotes the duration of the 1 bit

Hence Bit rate =

All the forms of the base band signalling shown transfer data at the same bit rate.

Baud rate is defined as the reciprocal of the duration of the shortest signalling element .

1

Baud Rate =

baud

In general

For

NRZ :

RZ :

Bi-Phase:

AMI:

Baud Rate = 2 x Bit Rate

Baud Rate = 2 x Bit Rate

Baud Rate = Bit Rate

i.e.

Fourier series for a square wave,

If we pass this signal through a LPF then the maximum bandwidth would be 1/T

Hz, i.e. to just allow the fundamental (1st harmonic) to pass.

(Contd)

The data sequence 1010

could then be completely

recovered

Bmin

1

1 Baud Rate

1

T 2 E

2

E

Considering RZ signals, the max frequency occurs when continuous 1s are transmitted.

Bmin

2 E

Baud Rate

fU

2

If the sequence was continuous 0s, the signal would be V continuously, hence

f L ' DC '

Bi-Phase

Maximum frequency occurs when continuous

1s or 0s transmitted.

This is similar to RZ with

Baud Rate =

= 2 x Bit rate

Baud Rate

2

The minimum frequency occurs when the sequence is 10101010.

e.g.

Bmin f U

In this case

B = E

Bmin f L

Baud Rate

2

Noise

The performance of Digital Data Systems is dependent on the bit error rate, BER, i.e.

probability of a bit being in error.

Prob. of Error or BER,

No of Errors E

P

as N

Total bits N

Digital Modulation

There are four basic ways of sending

digital data

The BER (P) depends on several factors

the modulation type, ASK FSK or

PSK

the demodulation method

the noise in the system

the signal to noise ratio

Noise

Noise

Noise

Analysis

For ASK and PSK

Demodulator-Detector-Decision

FOR FSK

Demodulator

Demodulator Contd)

1

V IN dt

RC

Hence design RCT

Vout

Detector-Decision

V1 - V0 is the voltage difference

between a 1 and 0.

(V REF

V1 V2

)

2

2

Detector-Decision (Contd)

ND is the noise at the Detector input.

Probability of Error,

1 erf

2

2 2 N D

Hence

v0

v1

P(v0)

vn

P0 (vn )

1 1

e

2 2

2 ND

( v0 v1 ) 2

2 2

P1 (vn )

Pe1

vn

v1

v0

v0 v1

2

2

x

( v n v0 ) 2

2 2

v n v0

2

dv n

(*)

Pe1

This becomes

x 2 dx

(**)

v1 v0

2 2

complimentary error function, erfc(x), defined by

erfc ( z )

Equations (*) and (**) become

1

v1 v0

Pe1 erfc

2

2 2

e

z

x2

dx

erfc( z ) 1 erf ( z )

Pe1

Pe 0

1

v1 v0

1

erf

2

2

v0 v1

2

1

e

2

( vn v1 ) 2

2 2

dvn

It is clear from the symmetry of this problem that Pe0 is identical to Pe1 and the

probability of error Pe, irrespective of whether a one or zero was transmitted, can

be rewritten in terms of v = v1 v0

1

v

Pe 1 erf

2

2 2

for unipolar signalling (0 and v)

v

for polar signalling (symbol represented by voltage

2

Detector-Decision (Contd)

ASK

1

e 1 erf

2

S IN

4 N IN

OOK

FSK

PSK

PRK

1

e 1 erf

2

1

e 1 erf

2

S IN

2 N IN

S IN

N IN

Detector-Decision (Contd)

One form of FM/FSK demodulator is shown below

VIN (t ) Vc Cos IN t

Where IN is the input frequency (rad/sec) IN 2 f IN

V x V IN t V IN t

V x Vc Cos IN t .Vc Cos IN (t )

Since CosA CosB

1

Cos A B Cos A B

2

Vc2

Vx

Cos IN t IN t Cos IN t IN t

2

i.e

Vc2

Cos IN t IN IN t Cos IN t IN IN t

Vx

2

Vc2

Cos 2 IN IN t Cos IN

Vx

2

Vc2

Cos 2 IN t

(1)

2

2

Vc2

and

Cos IN t

( 2)

2

IN is constant.

The cut-off frequency for the LPF is designed so that component (1) is removed and

component (2) is passed to the output.

VOUT

Vc2

Cos IN t

2

The V/F characteristics and inputs are shown below

Analogue FM

f c Vm

ym xc

f out VIN f 0

VIN VDC m(t )

VIN VDC Vm Cos mt

i.e. f out VDC Vm Cos mt f 0

f c VDC ,

Tc

Modulation Index

1

fc

f c Vm

fm

fm

The spectrum of the analogue FM signal depends on

and is given by

FM Vs (t ) Vc J n ( ) Cos c n m t

n 1

Digital FSK

ym xc

f out V IN f 0

V IN V DC m(t )

V IN V DC V1

for 1' s

V IN V DC V0

for 0' s

f 1 V DC V1 f 0

for 1' s

f 0 V DC V0 f 0

for 0' s

f c V DC ,

Tc

1

fc

h

f1 f 0

Rb

i.e. Modulus f1 f 0

Consider again the output from the demodulator VOUT

The delay

Hence

VOUT

is set to Tc

4

where Tc

2 f IN

Vc2

Cos

2

4 fc

1

fc

VOUT

and

Vc2

Cos IN

2

fc

f IN

Vc2

Cos

2

2 fc

The curve shows the demodulator F/V characteristics which in this case is non linear.

The comparator is LIMITER which is a zero crossing detector to give a digital input to

the first gate.

This is form of delay and multiply circuit where the delay

= CR

Consider now

f IN f c

VOUT

AE f IN

4 fc

f IN

(Assuming A=1)

- ch06-SLIDE-[2]Data Communications and Networking By Behrouz A.ForouzanUploaded byXP2009
- syllabus_msc_physics_2014.pdfUploaded byEjaz Ashraf
- Handout 2Uploaded byapi-3725389
- 01.Basic ConceptsUploaded byAchilles Aldave
- OPTICAL COMMUNICATION.pdfUploaded byVishwas Nitre Gopinath
- STM-1 Mux Demux BrochureUploaded byKanth India
- • Analog and Digital • Aperiodic and Periodic Signals •Uploaded byvvvamsimohan
- IES - Electrical Engineering - Communication SystemUploaded byNuman Khan
- ADDITIONAL NOTES.docUploaded byDenaiya Watton Leeh
- Telecommunications Switching Systems 4Uploaded byRamcharan Buddi
- electronics 2Uploaded byMadhan Mohan
- PLM01 St7537 App NoteUploaded byapi-3723964
- 64QAM_ofdmUploaded bythuhienptit2003
- MIMO projectUploaded byabhi9998
- Orthogonal Frequency Division MultiplexingUploaded byRamesh Chowdarapally
- BulSU2_est_part.docUploaded byJessionDiwangan
- II Midsem Answer Key FinalUploaded bypachava vaibhavi
- Ce- 6th sem (MST 3) (EET354).docxUploaded byJasjeet Singh
- nwUploaded byShriram Padiya
- SyllabusUploaded byRuchi Sharma
- TelemetryUploaded bygalati12345
- Ec 206_ Principal of Communication (New)Uploaded byNaren Didela
- et92Uploaded byNinad Patange
- 30-SYSARC2011(OFDM)Uploaded byVo Tan Tai
- 02-Tm2106euo1_eg0001-Basic Concept of Spread Spectrum Tech.Uploaded byMohamedSalah
- C&F4WebUploaded bymatmatijamel
- syno2Uploaded byAshokupadhye1955
- ZahidUploaded byzahid
- m5l30Uploaded byRupaShaw
- Walchand Inst of Tech Solapur 3.5.2012Uploaded byVipul Kondekar

- abstract opticalUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- micro controllerUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- dipole antenna design.pptxUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- bode plotUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- Vehicle Tracking System Using Gps & Gsm -Acd ProjectUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- ACD AbstractUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- AcdUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- FALLSEM2015-16_CP2069_12-Aug-2015_RM01_ECE306_Class14Uploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- FALLSEM2015 16 CP3337 12 Aug 2015 RM01 Model Based CodingUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- Analysis of Different PN SequencesUploaded byShanmukh Gollapudi
- Hay Kin 3Uploaded byAhmadEl-assaf
- computer architectureUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- analog circuit design op amp solved problemsUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri
- Corporate Economics Assignment RestaurantUploaded byRam Gopal Vetukuri

- Cometheory BookUploaded bylovereveryone
- Teleprotección de Línea (87) - C37.94Uploaded byJMCols
- E.C.E Seminar TopicsUploaded bynaveen00757
- 79193954 Data Communications and Computer NetworksUploaded byAnjali Naidu
- iPlex Version 5.0 Installation GuideUploaded byAlexander Pischulin
- UT Dallas Syllabus for te4367.501.08s taught by Murat Torlak (torlak)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Course OutcomeUploaded byMurali Dharan
- Where Can I Download JNO-102 Dumps?Uploaded byadley.brice
- seg_d_rev3.0.pdfUploaded byJuan Carlos Limachi Lagos
- Main Project ReferenceUploaded byNaveenKumar
- Viva Questions for Advanced Communication LabUploaded byanittadevadas
- eMBMSUploaded byCharles Weber
- SC03_10r1 Smart AntennaUploaded byPradeep Singh Kouharia
- Guidelines for the Transition from Analogue to Digital Broadcasting.pdfUploaded bymeteostroy
- MIMOUploaded byNiranjan Hn
- MBDOC48Uploaded byAlberto Valero Pelaez
- UntitledUploaded byMohit Asrani
- Part-IIUploaded byGiing Fernandez
- 4. Digital SwitchingUploaded byKaushal Patel
- Prospects and Challenges of DAB/DAB+ in Future Radio Broadcasting in BangladeshUploaded byidesajith
- An Overview of DWDMUploaded byArindamDuttaChoudhury
- Single Channel Microwave Photonics Digital Beamforming Radar ImagingUploaded byEngr Saleem Chandio
- Mca - Ou - SyllabusUploaded byKrishna Chandra Sekhar Reddy
- Seminar Report on “Smart Dust”Uploaded byshubham@
- Advance ModulationUploaded byshahabniazi
- LTE Transmission Modes and Beam FormingUploaded bySerdar Karaaslan
- ADVANCED NETWORKING TRENDS - Module 2Uploaded bykrazymax
- MIMO andMimo Smart Antennas_July 2013_FINALUploaded bya_sahai
- E1 structure and Traffic Mapping.pptUploaded byJeandelaSagesse
- BMW Introduction to Bus SystemsUploaded bygraig27