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A Warm Welcome to all

On behalf of NHPC & HCC

PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE

Aug 8, 2015

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PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE

DISCLAIMER

This presentation contains certain forward looking statements concerning future business prospects and profitability of HCC, which are subject to a
number of risks and uncertainties and actual results could materially differ from those in such forward looking statements, important developments
that could affect the company's operations include a downtrend in the infrastructure sector, significant changes in political and economic environment
in India, tax laws, labor relations, litigation etc. The company does not undertake to make any announcement in case any of these forward looking
statements become materially incorrect in future or update any forward looking statements made from time to time by or on behalf of the company.
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Dam View

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Dam View during Night

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Crusher Plant (200 TPH)

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Cone Crusher (250 TPH)

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Batching Plant Process

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Batching Plant Process (Contd..)

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Batching Plant (120 m3/hr)

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Concrete pouring using Hydraulic Buckets

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Concrete pouring using Hydraulic Buckets (Contd)

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Mixer Pouring using Insulated Transit Mixers

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Dam Insulation during Winter (Jan-09):

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Curing Tanks & Sensor

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Testing in Laboratory

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MIX DESIGN Details

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PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE

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Overview
Properties of fresh concrete
Workability
Segregation
Bleeding
Heat of Hydration

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Concrete

Concrete is a mix of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate,


water, chemical admixtures and sometimes supplementary
cementitious materials like Fly Ash, Silica Fume etc. which,
when placed in the skeleton of forms, allowed to hydrate and
cured form a hardened mass with very high compressive
strength

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Mixing of concrete

It is essential that the mix ingredients are mixed properly so as


to produce fresh concrete in which all the aggregate particles is
coated with cement paste and therefore possessing uniform
properties

Types of mixers:
Pan mixers
Twin shaft mixers
Gravity mixers (tilting & non-tilting)

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Mixing of concrete (contd.)

Mixing time is specified by the manufacturer depending upon


the type of mixer and its size

Mixing time for producing a good mix in a batching plant


generally varies between 30 to 90 secs

Lesser mixing time than recommended will not produce a


uniform mix, but prolonged mixing time than required will have
no significant improvement

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Workability

Generally implies the ease with which a concrete mix can be


handled from mixer to its finally compacted shape
Consistency fluidity
Mobility ease of flow
Compactibility ease of compaction

Internal work required to produce full compaction

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Workability

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Tests to measure workability


Four widely used tests
Slump test
Compacting factor test
Vebe test
Flow test

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Slump Test
Requirement
Slump Cone
Tamping Rod
Ruler

Suitable for normal


mixes of medium to
high workability

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Slump Test (cont.)

Method
Concrete put in cone in 4 layer, each layer tamped 25 times
Top struck off and cone carefully lifted off
Slump measured

Not suitable for dry mixes

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Compacting Factor Test

Thought to be more sensitive

Suitable for all mixes

Method
Mixed concrete put in top hopper
Allowed to fall into 2nd hopper then
cylinder
Cylinder struck off, concrete weighed
and compared with weight of fully
compacted cylinder
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Other Tests

Vebe Test time for standard cone to be compacted flat by


glass plate on vibrating table eg., for workable concrete the
Vebe time = approx. 3 sec

Flow Test the measured spread in mm of a standard cone


on a dropping table (40mm, 15 times)

Neither of these are popular at site for conventional concrete

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Other Tests (contd.)

Vebe Consistometer
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Flow Table
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Effect of amount of mixing water

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Type of admixtures

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Workability Requirements
Slump (mm)
Concrete Construction

Maximum

Minimum

Reinforced foundation walls and


footings

75

25

Plain footings, caissons and


substructure walls

75

25

Beams and reinforced walls

100

25

Building columns

100

25

Pavements and slabs

75

25

Mass Concrete

50

25

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Segregation

Segregation is defined as separation of the constituents of a


heterogeneous mixture so that their distribution is no longer
uniform
It is a tendency for

sand-cement mortar to separate from coarse aggregates


Cement mortar to separate from fine aggregate

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Segregation (contd.)
Caused by
Excessive vibrations
Dropping fresh concrete from a height
Poor grading
High workability
Mixes with no air entrainment

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Bleeding

Tendency of water to rise to the surface

This will cause weakness or dustiness of the surface of


finished concrete or a line of weakness between pours

Bleeding is affected largely by the properties of cement. It can


be avoided by

A finer cement
Reducing water cement ratio
Increasing proportion of minus 300m in the mix
Using air-entraining admixture
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Grading of aggregates

Proper grading of aggregates is required to get desired


workability

Though it is not affecting strength, it is required for proper


compaction of concrete, which subsequently gives good
strength

Main factors governing desired grading are:


Surface area of aggregates which determine the amount of
water necessary to wet all the solids
Relative volume occupied by the aggregates
Workability of mix and tendency to segregation
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Effect of aggregates shape and texture

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Vibration of concrete
Compaction of concrete is vital to achieve:

Maximum strength of the placed concrete

Maximum durability

Maximum density

Avoidance or reduction of visual blemishes, such as


honeycombing and blowholes on the surface of form cast
concrete

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Vibration of concrete

The object in vibrating the concrete is to mobilise it sufficiently,


so that it becomes plastic enough to enable air voids to be
removed and aggregate particles to gravitate together to from
a homogeneous mass

Stiffer the mix and larger the aggregate particle size, greater
will be the force required to energise the mix

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Vibration of concrete
Types of vibrators
Internal vibrator
External vibrator

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Heat of Hydration

The exothermic reaction during setting can cause a significant


temperature rise in large concrete pours

This causes expansion, then setting, then contraction

If the pour is restrained, or has a temperature differential,


cracking may occur

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Heat of Hydration (contd.)

The temp. of concrete has to be lowered so that the temp.


differential between surface and core of concrete is not high

Methods to cool concrete


Use of chilled water
Use of ice
Cooling aggregates

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Air content in Fresh Concrete

Mixing and handling can significantly alter the air content of


fresh concrete

Various test methods:


Pressure Method

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Pressure Method

It is the most widely used method

It is based on the relation between the volume of air and


applied pressure

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Curing

If left in contact with water, concrete will continue to gain


strength for many months

Otherwise all free water evaporates or is used up in the


hydration process and no further hydration can continue

Curing ensures that water for hydration is available as long as


possible

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Curing (contd.)

Methods of curing

Water curing (Immersion, Ponding, Spraying or wet


covering)

Membrane curing using curing compound

Application of heat (steam curing)

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Self Compacting Concrete


Self-compacting concrete is the concrete that is able to flow under its
own weight and completely fill the formwork, even in the presence of
dense reinforcement, without the need of any vibration, while
maintaining homogeneity

No vibration needed

Self-consolidating

Self-placing

Faster construction

Improved quality and durability

High strength

Better surface finishes


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Self Compacting Concrete


Various tests for checking SCC properties are:

Slump flow

V-Funnel

L-Box

U-Box

Fill Box

J-Ring

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Test Conducted on SCC

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Self Compacting Concrete

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Self Compacting Concrete

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Self Compacting Concrete

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Self Compacting Concrete

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Setting Time of Concrete in various Temperatures

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Thank you

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