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Activity 1: CELL

ULTRASTRUCTURE

Reporters (Group 1):


Guillermo, Janina Suzette C.
Infante, Norelle Micah S.
Larumbe, Jovet Emmanuel S.

What are cells?


structural and functional unit of all living
organisms
sometimes called as the building block
of life
small compartments that hold the
biological equipment necessary to keep an
organism alive and successful
living things may be single-celled or they
may be very complex such as a human
being.

There are two basic types of


organisms based oncell type:
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic cells are divided into the
domainsBacteria and Archaea.
Eukaryotic cells make up the more
familiarDomain Eukarya.

Structural Similarities

PROKARYOTES

PROKARYOTES
Mainly divided into because of the
Ribosomal RNA sequencing work of Carl
Woese, Ralph Wolfe and co workers.
EUBACTERIA: Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas streptococcus, and
Staphylococcus.
ARCHAEA: Methanogens, Halophiles
and Thermacidophiles

Prokaryotes are the smallest forms


of life that can live independently.
Most prokaryotes are
tiny single cells, but some can form
larger,multi-celledstructures.
Thefirst lifeon earth consisted of
prokaryotic cells.
The most familiar prokaryotes are
bacteria.

PARTS AND FUNCTION


1. CELL WALL The cell wall of bacteria
protects the cell from osmostic shock and
physical damage. In addition, it also confers
rigiditiy and shape of bacterial cells.
Although bacterial cell walls all consist
ofpeptidoglycan, also known as murein or
mucopeptide, they differ in certain properties
in two groups of bacteria, namely gramnegative and gram-positive.
Cell wall is made up of GLYCOCALYX. These
are
polysaccharide layers in the bacterial
cell that
dictates PATHOGINECITY.

PARTS AND FUNCTION


2. CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE - The cytoplasmic
membrane encloses the cytoplasm. It regulates the
specific transport of substance between the cell and
the environment. The cytoplasmic membrane contains
2 main components: lipid and protein.
The lipid component of the bacterial cell is
phospholipid bilayer.
Hydrophilic heads and Hydrophobic tails
(saturated and unsaturated chains of fatty acids.
Membrane proteins are located in various
positions within the membrane, through specific
interactions with phospholipid molecules.

PARTS AND FUNCTION


How do bacteria store genetic information?
Genetic information in bacteria is stored in the
sequence of DNA intwo forms, that is (1) bacterial
chromosome and (2) plasmid.

PARTS AND FUNCTION


PLASMID
Location: In cytosol
of bacterial cells.
Number: From 1 to
several.
Size: Much smaller
than chromosomes.
Components: Single,
double stranded,
circular DNA.
Information:
Contains drug
resistant genes as well
as heavy metal
resistant genes. Not

BACTERIAL
CHROMOSOME
Location: Within nucleoid
region , not surrounded by
nuclear envelope.
Component: Single, double
stranded, circular DNA.
Also contains RNA and
proteins that take part in
DNA replication,
transcription and regulation
of gene expression. DNA
does not interact with
protein histone.
Information: Contain

PARTS AND FUNCTION


5. RIBOSOMES Important in protein synthesis.
TRANSLATION occurs in the ribosomes , in this
process nucleotide sequence of DNA is translated to
specific amino acids of a protein.
Ribosomes consists of RNA and proteins.
Bacteria cells contain 70S ribosomes
Notes: Sis Svedburg unit, which represents
how rapidly particles or molecules sediment in
an ultracentrifuge. The larger a substance, the
greater its S value.

PARTS AND FUNCTION


5. FLAGELLA Locomotion or movement of bacteria.
Most bacteria canlocomote todifferent parts of their
environment, which helps them to find new resources
to survive.
Types of Flagella distribution
Monotrichous flagella:one flagellum, if it originates from
one end of the cell, it is called polar flagellum. Rapid
swimming caused by the rotation of flagella.
Peritrichous flagella: flagella surround the cell. Bundled
peritrichous flagella give rise to slower forward motion than
polar flagella.
Function of flagella
Chemotaxis:movement of bacteria toward or away from
chemical stimuli
Magnetotaxis: movementalong the Earth's magnetic field.
Happen in magnetotatic bacteria, which contain

PARTS AND FUNCTION


7. INCLUSION BODY Mineral storage of cell.
8. PILI
Structure:Short, thin, straight, hairlike
projections form surface of some bacteria.
Composed of protein pilin, carbohydrate and
phosphate. Pili are usually few.
Function:Take part in adhesion of pathogen to
specific host tissues. Sex pili are involved in genetic
material exchangebetween mating bacterial cells.
9. ENDOSPORE - Tough, heat resistance
structurethat help bacteria survive
inadverse conditions.

EUKARYOTES

Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes have cells that are larger and more
complex in structure than prokaryotic cells.
Only a few prokaryotes have become as large as
eukaryotic cells.
The needs of a large, eukaryotic cell can be compared
to those of a factory.

Compartmentalization and an
endomembrane system allow eukaryotic cells
to function efficiently.
Organelles serve as compartments within the cell and
the endomembrane system enhances organization and
internal transport.
Some prokaryotes have infolded membranes to provide
limited compartmentalization, and a few may even
utilize vesicles to concentrate enzymes or for internal

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles

A. NUCLEUS
The nucleus controls cell functions through
transcription of DNA followed by protein synthesis.
Chromosomes within the nucleus consist of
chromatin which is DNA combined with proteins.
The chromatin is highly compacted to fit within the
nucleus; loosely compacted chromatin is called
euchromatin.
Chromosomes only become visible as distinct
entities during cell division.
The nuclear membrane contains pores;
macromolecules can enter and leave the nucleus by
this route.
A dense region within the nucleus, called the

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles
B. ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM

(RER/SER -> GOLGI APPARATUS -> VESICLES ->


LYSOSOMES)
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by an extensive system of
internal membranes that perform important metabolic
functions and regulate protein traffic within the cell.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) extends
throughout the cell and binds ribosomes.
It assists in the processing of proteins and sends them on to
the golgi apparatus.
It also serves as a membrane factory for the cell.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) does not


bind ribosomes.
It produces many non-protein products, such as lipids and
steroid hormones.
It also stores calcium ions and plays a major role in
detoxifying harmful substances

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles
ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM:
GOLGI APPARATUS

The golgi is a series of interconnected


sacs that serve as a distribution center for
proteins.
It receives proteins from the RER and often
completes the processing of carbohydrate
groups/completes the glycosylation.
It sorts each protein according to its
destination, then sends the proteins on their
way.
It is a dynamic structure in which membranes
are recycled.

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles
ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM:
SECRETORY VESICLE
Once processed by the Golgi complex, secretory
proteins and other substances intended for
export from the cell are packaged in the
secretory vesicle. The vesicle from the golgi
region move to and fuse with the plasma
membrane and discharge their contents to the
exterior of the cell by the process of exocytosis

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles
C. MITOCHONDRIA

Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell.


They are quite numerous in most eukaryotic cells.
They transform food energy into ATP while consuming
oxygen and releasing carbon dixoxide.

Extracting usable energy from food is a three-step


process.
Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and produces
pyruvate.
Pyruvate moves into the mitochondria and is converted to
acetyl-coA which enters the citric acid cycle.
During oxidative phosphorylation, energy is generated by
electron transport and stored in ATP.
An enzyme called ATP synthase acts as a molecular motor to
make ATP from ADP + P.

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles
MITOCHONDRIA
Mitochondria are thought to have arisen as
endosymbionts of larger cells.
Mitochondria are similar in structure to those
bacteria that have infolded membranes.
Mitochondria contain their own DNA and replicate by
dividing.

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles
D. CYTOSKELETON
The cytoskeleton consists of three types of
filamentous structures that form a 3dimensional support network within the
cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
Microfilaments (also called actin filaments) are solid
fibers with the smallest diameter.
Intermediate filaments are solid, but larger.
Microtubules are hollow rods with the largest
diameter.
Microfilaments and microtubules are dynamic
structures that can disassemble and reassemble.

Eukaryotes: Common
Organelles
CYTOSKELETON
Microfilaments and microtubules are
also involved in motility functions.
Microfilaments are responsible for
contraction and cell shape change in many cell
types.
They form a contractile ring around the cell during
cell division.
They alter cell shape to generate cell movement over
a surface.
They interact with myosin to bring about muscle
contraction.

Eukaryotes: Plant Cells

Eukaryotes: Plant Cells

Eukaryotes: Plant Cells


Plant cells have additional structures not found in
animal cells.
The cell wall is a supporting structure that
surrounds plant cells.
The cell wall is made of cellulose fibrils plus a few other
macromolecules, such as pectin.
Adjacent cells are connected by plasmodesmata that
extend through the cell walls.

The central vacuole stores a variety of molecules


and creates turgor pressure.
Plastids are organelles unique to plant cells.
Chloroplasts are designed for photosynthesis.
Other kinds of plastids contain pigments or store starch .

Eukaryotes: Animal
Cells

Eukaryotes: Animal Cells

Eukaryotes: Animal Cells


Lysosomes are the "cleanup crews" of
the cell.
They contain enzymes that digest
cellular debris and invading
microorganisms.
They also assist in disposing of
defective or worn-out organelles.

Eukaryotes: Animal
Cells
Peroxisomes are small membrane-bound
compartments that contain peroxidase.
They perform several different
functions involving oxidation.
They produce their own membranes,
and sometimes replicate by splitting.

Eukaryotes: Animal
Cells

The centrosome and centrioles assist in


microtubule organization within the
cytoplasm and serve as basal bodies for
flagella and cilia.

References:
Madigan., M.T., Martinko., J.M., Stahl., D.A. and Clark.,
D.P. (2012). Biology of Microorganisms. 13 edition. Boston
and London.Pearson.
Atlas., R.M. (1995). Principles of Microbiology. 1st edition.
London and New York. Mosby-Yearbook, Inc.
Talaro., K and Talaro., A. (1993). Foundations in
Microbiology. Wm. C. Brown Communication, Inc.
Hogg., S. (2006). Essential Microbiology.Wiley.
www.micro.magent.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html