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Chapter 3

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CENTRAL TENDENCY

CHAPTER 3

MEAN

efficient measures of central

tendency is the mean.

Mean - It is the value obtained

by adding the values in the

distribution and dividing the

sum by the total number of

values.

Formula

Or

Example:

1. Consider the following values.

21, 10, 36, 42, 39, 52, 30, 25, 26

Compute the mean

2. The ages of 15 students in a

certain class were taken and

shown below.

15, 18, 17, 16, 19, 21, 18, 23, 24,

18, 16, 17, 20, 21, 19, determine

the mean age of the students.

WEIGHTED MEAN:

the computation of the mean of set

data, each value in the distribution

is associated with certain weight or

degree of importance.

w = represents the weight

associated

to x

WEIGHTED MEAN

Example:

1. Compute the weighted mean grade of the

student as shown below.

Subject

No. of Units (w)

Grade (x)

1 3 2.0

2 3 3.0

3 5 1.25

4 1 3.0

5 2 2.5

6 3 2.5

WEIGHTED MEAN

Example:

2. A die was rolled 100 times and the results

are shown below.

Outcome (x)

frequency (w)

1

17

2

14

3

20

4

15

5

15

6

19

in a frequency distribution, we shall

consider two methods:

Midpoint Method

CLASS INTERVAL IS TAKEN AS THE

REPRESENTATIVE OF EACH CLASS. THESE

MIDPOINTS ARE MULTIPLIED BY THEIR

CORRESPONDING FREQUENCIES. THE PRODUCTS

ARE ADDED AND THE SUM IS DIVIDED BY THE

TOTAL NUMBER OF FREQUENCIES.

Midpoint method

each

class

x = the midpoint of each class

n = the total number of frequencies

or sample size

Steps:

1. Get the midpoint of each class.

2. Multiply each midpoint by its

corresponding frequency.

3. Get the sum of the products in

step 2.

4. Divide the sum obtained in step 3

by the total number of

frequencies. The result shall be

rounded off to two decimal places.

Midpoint Method (example)

Compute the value of the mean for the

frequency distribution below.

Classes

f

11-22 3

23-34 5

35-46 11

47-58 19

59-70 14

71-82 6

83-94 2

The

alternative

method

of

computing the value of the mean

for the grouped data is unit

deviation method. Instead of using

midpoint

this

method

uses

deviation. This method is usually

implemented by considering an

arbitrary point as the initial step in

approximating the value of the

mean.

Formula

Where

mean

f =the frequency of each class

d = represents the unit deviation

n = sample size

c = size of the class interval

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Steps

Choose an assumed mean by getting the

midpoint of any interval.

Construct the unit deviation column.

Multiply the frequencies by their corresponding

unit deviations. Add the products.

Divide the sum in step 3 by the sample size.

Multiply the result in step 4 by the size of the

class interval.

Add the value obtained in step 5 to assume the

mean. The obtained result which is the mean

should be rounded off to 2 decimal places.

Example

Compute the value of the mean for the

frequency distribution below. Use deviation

method

Classes

f

11-22 3

23-34 5

35-46 11

47-58 19

59-70 14

71-82 6

83-94 2

MEDIAN

defined as the middlemost value

in the distribution. Hence, this

value divides the a given set of

data into a two equal parts.

In

determination

of

the

median of ungrouped data, it

is always a must that the

values be arranged in terms of

magnitude either from the

lowest to the highest or vice

versa.

Formula

if n is odd

if n is even

Example

1. Find the median of the following

values.

21, 10, 36, 42, 39, 52, 30, 25,

26

2. The following values are the

number of students of the first 8

classes in a certain college

taken for inspection: 21, 25, 26,

30, 36, 39, 42, 55, determine

computation of the value of

the median is done through

interpolation. The procedure

requires the construction of

the less than cumulative

column.

Formula

Where

= cumulative frequency before

the median class

= frequency of median class

= size of the class interval

Steps

1. Get of the total number of values

2. Determine the value of

3. Determine the median class.

4. Determine the lower boundary and the

frequency of median class and the size

of the class interval.

5. Substitute the values obtained in steps

1-4, round off the final result to two

decimal places.

Example

Compute the value of the median for the frequency

distribution below.

Classes

f

11-22

3

23-34

5

35-46

11

47-58

19

59-70

14

71-82

6

83-94

2

Example

A researcher is conducting an investigation regarding the

income of the alumni of a certain university 5 years after

graduation. The monthly incomes of the 200 respondents were

taken and presented below.

Classes

f

3,500-4,999 6

5,000-6,499 23

6,500-7,999 36

8,000-9,499 40

9,500-10,999 59

11,000-12,499

20

12,500-13,999

8

14,000-15,499

6

15,500-16,999

2

MODE

It is referred to as the

most frequent value

in the distribution.

be

obtained

through

inspection,

thus,

no

computation is needed. This

mode might exist or it might

exist or it might not exist.

Formula

Example

Determine the mode of the following

set

A: 21, 23, 16, 15, 26, 27, 19, 24

B: 31, 21, 16, 15, 21, 27, 19, 18

C: 17, 25, 34, 25, 27, 19, 19, 24

the frequency of the

modal

class

to

the

frequency before and to

the frequency after the

modal class.

MODAL CLASS

Contains

the

highest frequency

in the distribution.

Formula

Steps

1. Determine the modal class.

2. Get the value of

.

3. Get the value of

.

4. Get the lower boundary of the modal

class.

5. Apply the formula by substituting the

value obtained in the preceding steps.

Example

distribution below.

Classes

11-22

3

23-34

5

35-46

11

47-58

19

59-70

14

71-82

6

83-94

2

for

f

the

frequency

are some of the observations that can

be made.

The mean always exist in any

distribution. This implies that far any

set of data, the mean can always be

computed.

The value of the mean in any

distribution is unique. This implies that

for any distribution, there is only one

possible value of the mean.

In the computation for this measure, it

Like

also

The

also

This

exists in any distribution.

value of the median is

unique.

is a positional measure.

FOR THE THIRD MEASURE, THE MODE HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS.

If the mode exists, it is

always unique.

In determining the value of

the mode, it does not take

into account all the values in

the distribution.

QUARTILES

distribution into four equal parts

Where

class

kth quartile class

= cumulative frequency before

the kth quartile class

= frequency of kth quartile

QUARTILES

of k = 1, then the equation shall become

When k = 2,

since 2n/4 = n/2,

then we can conclude

that the value of

second quartile is

equal to the value of median.

QUARTILES

that the value of the second

quartile is equal to the value of

median. Finally when k = 3, then

the computing formula of third

quartile is

QUARTILES

Example:

Compute the value of the first quartile and the

third quartile.

Classes

f

<cumf

11-22

23-34

35-46

47-58

59-70

71-82

83-94

3

5

11

19

14

6

2

3

8

11

38

52

58

60

DECILES

For

grouped

data,

the

computing formula is patterned

after the formula for the value

of the median or quartiles.

Where k = 1, 2, 3, ., 9

have

DECILES

Example:

Compute the value of

Classes

11-22

23-34

35-46

47-58

59-70

71-82

83-94

f

3

5

11

19

14

6

2

<cumf

3

8

11

38

52

58

60

PERCENTILES

REFER TO THOSE VALUES THAT DIVIDE A DISTRIBUTION INTO

ONE HUNDRED EQUAL PARTS. THERE ARE 99 PERCENTILES

REPRESENTED BY P1, P2, P3, , AND P99. IF A FREQUENCY

DISTRIBUTION IS GIVEN, THEN THE COMPUTING FORMULA SHALL

BE SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE MEDIAN, QUARTILE OR DECILE.

PERCENTILES

Example:

Compute the value of the 43rd percentile.

Classes

f

<cumf

11-22

23-34

35-46

47-58

59-70

71-82

83-94

3

5

11

19

14

6

2

3

8

11

38

52

58

60

THANK

YOU!!!

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