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MEASURES OF

CENTRAL TENDENCY
CHAPTER 3

MEAN

One of the simplest and most


efficient measures of central
tendency is the mean.
Mean - It is the value obtained
by adding the values in the
distribution and dividing the
sum by the total number of
values.

MEAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Formula

Or

MEAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA:

Example:
1. Consider the following values.
21, 10, 36, 42, 39, 52, 30, 25, 26
Compute the mean
2. The ages of 15 students in a
certain class were taken and
shown below.
15, 18, 17, 16, 19, 21, 18, 23, 24,
18, 16, 17, 20, 21, 19, determine
the mean age of the students.

WEIGHTED MEAN:

There are some instances where, in


the computation of the mean of set
data, each value in the distribution
is associated with certain weight or
degree of importance.

Where x = represents the item value


w = represents the weight
associated
to x

WEIGHTED MEAN

Example:
1. Compute the weighted mean grade of the
student as shown below.
Subject
No. of Units (w)
Grade (x)
1 3 2.0
2 3 3.0
3 5 1.25
4 1 3.0
5 2 2.5
6 3 2.5

WEIGHTED MEAN

Example:
2. A die was rolled 100 times and the results
are shown below.
Outcome (x)
frequency (w)
1
17
2
14
3
20
4
15
5
15
6
19

MEAN FOR GROUPED DATA

To compute the value of the presented


in a frequency distribution, we shall
consider two methods:
Midpoint Method

IN USING THIS METHOD, THE MIDPOINT OF EACH


CLASS INTERVAL IS TAKEN AS THE
REPRESENTATIVE OF EACH CLASS. THESE
MIDPOINTS ARE MULTIPLIED BY THEIR
CORRESPONDING FREQUENCIES. THE PRODUCTS
ARE ADDED AND THE SUM IS DIVIDED BY THE
TOTAL NUMBER OF FREQUENCIES.

MEAN FOR GROUPED DATA

Midpoint method

Where f = represents the frequency of


each
class
x = the midpoint of each class
n = the total number of frequencies
or sample size

MEAN FOR GROUPED DATA


Steps:
1. Get the midpoint of each class.
2. Multiply each midpoint by its
corresponding frequency.
3. Get the sum of the products in
step 2.
4. Divide the sum obtained in step 3
by the total number of
frequencies. The result shall be
rounded off to two decimal places.

MEAN FOR GROUPED DATA:


Midpoint Method (example)
Compute the value of the mean for the
frequency distribution below.
Classes
f
11-22 3
23-34 5
35-46 11
47-58 19
59-70 14
71-82 6
83-94 2

UNIT DEVIATION METHOD:

The
alternative
method
of
computing the value of the mean
for the grouped data is unit
deviation method. Instead of using
midpoint
this
method
uses
deviation. This method is usually
implemented by considering an
arbitrary point as the initial step in
approximating the value of the
mean.

UNIT DEVIATION METHOD:

Formula

Where
mean

= midpoint of the assumed


f =the frequency of each class
d = represents the unit deviation
n = sample size
c = size of the class interval

UNIT DEVIATION METHOD

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

Steps
Choose an assumed mean by getting the
midpoint of any interval.
Construct the unit deviation column.
Multiply the frequencies by their corresponding
unit deviations. Add the products.
Divide the sum in step 3 by the sample size.
Multiply the result in step 4 by the size of the
class interval.
Add the value obtained in step 5 to assume the
mean. The obtained result which is the mean
should be rounded off to 2 decimal places.

UNIT DEVIATION METHOD:

Example
Compute the value of the mean for the
frequency distribution below. Use deviation
method
Classes
f
11-22 3
23-34 5
35-46 11
47-58 19
59-70 14
71-82 6
83-94 2

MEDIAN

Median is a positional measure


defined as the middlemost value
in the distribution. Hence, this
value divides the a given set of
data into a two equal parts.

MEDIAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA

In
determination
of
the
median of ungrouped data, it
is always a must that the
values be arranged in terms of
magnitude either from the
lowest to the highest or vice
versa.

MEDIAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Formula
if n is odd
if n is even

MEDIAN FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Example
1. Find the median of the following
values.
21, 10, 36, 42, 39, 52, 30, 25,
26
2. The following values are the
number of students of the first 8
classes in a certain college
taken for inspection: 21, 25, 26,
30, 36, 39, 42, 55, determine

MEDIAN FOR GROUPED DATA

Just like the mean, the


computation of the value of
the median is done through
interpolation. The procedure
requires the construction of
the less than cumulative
column.

MEDIAN FOR GROUPED DATA

Formula

Where

= lower boundary of median class


= cumulative frequency before
the median class
= frequency of median class
= size of the class interval

MEDIAN FOR GROUPED DATA

Steps
1. Get of the total number of values
2. Determine the value of
3. Determine the median class.
4. Determine the lower boundary and the
frequency of median class and the size
of the class interval.
5. Substitute the values obtained in steps
1-4, round off the final result to two
decimal places.

MEDIAN FOR GROUPED DATA

Example
Compute the value of the median for the frequency
distribution below.
Classes
f
11-22
3
23-34
5
35-46
11
47-58
19
59-70
14
71-82
6
83-94
2

MEDIAN FOR GROUPED DATA

Example
A researcher is conducting an investigation regarding the
income of the alumni of a certain university 5 years after
graduation. The monthly incomes of the 200 respondents were
taken and presented below.
Classes
f
3,500-4,999 6
5,000-6,499 23
6,500-7,999 36
8,000-9,499 40
9,500-10,999 59
11,000-12,499
20
12,500-13,999
8
14,000-15,499
6
15,500-16,999
2

MODE

It is referred to as the
most frequent value
in the distribution.

MODE FOR UNGROUPED DATA

The value of the mode can


be
obtained
through
inspection,
thus,
no
computation is needed. This
mode might exist or it might
exist or it might not exist.

MODE FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Formula

Example
Determine the mode of the following
set
A: 21, 23, 16, 15, 26, 27, 19, 24
B: 31, 21, 16, 15, 21, 27, 19, 18
C: 17, 25, 34, 25, 27, 19, 19, 24

MODE FOR GROUPED DATA

Getting the differences of


the frequency of the
modal
class
to
the
frequency before and to
the frequency after the
modal class.

MODAL CLASS

Contains
the
highest frequency
in the distribution.

MODE FOR GROUPED DATA

Formula

Steps
1. Determine the modal class.
2. Get the value of
.
3. Get the value of
.
4. Get the lower boundary of the modal
class.
5. Apply the formula by substituting the
value obtained in the preceding steps.

MODE FOR GROUPED DATA

Example

Compute the mode


distribution below.
Classes
11-22
3
23-34
5
35-46
11
47-58
19
59-70
14
71-82
6
83-94
2

for
f

the

frequency

COMPARISON OF THE AVERAGES

In the case of the MEAN, the following


are some of the observations that can
be made.
The mean always exist in any
distribution. This implies that far any
set of data, the mean can always be
computed.
The value of the mean in any
distribution is unique. This implies that
for any distribution, there is only one
possible value of the mean.
In the computation for this measure, it

IN THE CASE OF THE MEDIAN, WE HAVE THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS.

Like
also
The
also
This

the mean, the median


exists in any distribution.
value of the median is
unique.
is a positional measure.

FOR THE THIRD MEASURE, THE MODE HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS.

It does not always exist.


If the mode exists, it is
always unique.
In determining the value of
the mode, it does not take
into account all the values in
the distribution.

QUARTILES

Refers to the values that divide the


distribution into four equal parts

Where

class

lower boundary of the


kth quartile class
= cumulative frequency before
the kth quartile class
= frequency of kth quartile

QUARTILES

It should be noted that when the value


of k = 1, then the equation shall become

When k = 2,
since 2n/4 = n/2,
then we can conclude
that the value of
second quartile is
equal to the value of median.

QUARTILES

Since then, we can conclude


that the value of the second
quartile is equal to the value of
median. Finally when k = 3, then
the computing formula of third
quartile is

QUARTILES

Example:
Compute the value of the first quartile and the
third quartile.
Classes
f
<cumf
11-22
23-34
35-46
47-58
59-70
71-82
83-94

3
5
11
19
14
6
2

3
8
11
38
52
58
60

DECILES

For
grouped
data,
the
computing formula is patterned
after the formula for the value
of the median or quartiles.

Where k = 1, 2, 3, ., 9

when k = 1, then EQN 3.13 shall become

When the value of k = 5, we shall


have

DECILES

Example:
Compute the value of
Classes
11-22
23-34
35-46
47-58
59-70
71-82
83-94

f
3
5
11
19
14
6
2

<cumf
3
8
11
38
52
58
60

PERCENTILES
REFER TO THOSE VALUES THAT DIVIDE A DISTRIBUTION INTO
ONE HUNDRED EQUAL PARTS. THERE ARE 99 PERCENTILES
REPRESENTED BY P1, P2, P3, , AND P99. IF A FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTION IS GIVEN, THEN THE COMPUTING FORMULA SHALL
BE SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE MEDIAN, QUARTILE OR DECILE.

hen the value of k = 43, then equation shall be

PERCENTILES

Example:
Compute the value of the 43rd percentile.
Classes
f
<cumf
11-22
23-34
35-46
47-58
59-70
71-82
83-94

3
5
11
19
14
6
2

3
8
11
38
52
58
60

THANK

YOU!!!