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HydrogenFuelCells

April5,2004

GaryFlomenhoft,
BSME,MAPP,CEE
ResearchAssociate
GundInstitute,SNR
Owner:
InnEVations.com

ENERGYSTORAGE
Performance of Energy Storage Systems

Fuel

SpecificEnergy

Gasoline

12,300

Natural gas

9,300

Hydrogen

33,000

Lead-acid battery

30

Advanced Lead Acid

48

Wh/kg

Gasoline:C8H18

ENERGYSTORAGE
Performance of Advanced EV Battery Systems

Source:
USABC
andothers

EnergyDensity

PowerDensity

Wh/kg

W/kg

Life
Cycles

Lead-acid battery

30

150

300

Advanced Lead Acid

48

150

800

GM Ovonic nickel metal


hydride

70

220

>600

SAFT nickel metal hydride

70

150

1,500

SAFT lithium ion

120

230

600

Lithium polymer

150

350

<600

60

255

500

160-220

low

Evercel Nickel-zinc
Zinc-Air
Composite Flywheels
Supercapacitors

120

LITHIUMIONBATTERY

SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.

COMPOSITEFLYWHEELS

SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.

SUPERCAPACITORS

SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.

ZINCAIRFUELCELL

SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.

MECHANICALRECHARGE
ZINCAIRFUELCELL

SOURCE:
METALLIC
POWER.COM

ENERGYDENSITYBYWEIGHTANDVOLUME

SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.

CARBDEFINITIONS
HC

CO

NOx

TLEV- Transitional Low-Emission 50%

NR

NR

LEV- Low-Emission Vehicle

70%

NR

50%

ULEV- Ultra-Low-Emission

85%

50%

50%

SULEV- Super-Ultra-Low-Emission
Vehicle (90% cleaner than 2003 average)

96%

70%

95%

PZEV-Partial Zero-Emission-

96%

70%

95%

Passengercaremissionsreduction

C
L
E
A
N
E
R

Vehicle

Vehicle (50%cleanerthantheaveragenew
2003modelyearvehicle.)

Vehicle

SULEV&15year/150Kmile
warrantyand0evaporative
emissions.

AT PZEV-Advanced Technology 96%


PZEV

(CNG, hybrid-electric,
methanol, fuel cell)

70%

95%

PZEV&andincludeadvanced
technologycomponents.

WhatisaFuelCellVehicle?

FUELCELLVEHICLES2004FORD

TheFordFocusFCVfuelcellsystemisefficient,
quiet,andproduceszeroemissions.Fordhas
announcedplanstohaveathreeyear
demonstrationprogramof510fleetvehiclesin
Vancouver,Canadain2004.

FUELCELLVEHICLES2003Honda

HondaisdeliveringafamilyofnewFCXfuel
cellvehiclestoitsfirstcustomer,thecityofLos
Angeles.Hondaplanstoleaseapproximately
30fuelcellcarsinCaliforniaandJapan
duringthenextseveralyears.Thefuelcell
itselfispropelledbyelectricitygeneratedbya
hydrogenoxygenchemicalreactionandits
onlyemission,remarkably,iswatervapor.

FUELCELLVEHICLES2003TOYOTA

(NOT
AVAILABLE)

Itsonlyexhaustiswatervapor.Its
secret?Ahydrogenfuelcellthat
harnessestheelectricityofseparated
atomsandmoleculesastheystrivetobe
electricallybalanced.Developedentirely
inhouse,FCHV4showsToyotaonthe
leadingedgeoffuelcelltechnology.

FUELCELLVEHICLESNISSAN

XTRAILFCV
Nissanisactivelydevelopingfuelcell
vehicles(FCVs)thathavelow
environmentalimpactandsaveenergy.
Commercializationisscheduledfor2003.
(?????)

FUELCELLVEHICLESGM

PROTOTYPE

TheHywirehasnointernal
combustionengine,instrument
panel,brakeoraccelerator
pedalsbutitdoeshave
amplepowersuppliedbya
GMfuelcellthatrunson
hydrogen.

FUELCELLVEHICLESDAIM/CHRYSLER

FUELCELLVEHICLESDAIM/CHRYSLER

FUELCELLVEHICLESHYUNDAI

HYDROGENFUELCELLOPERATION

SOURCE:
SchatzEnergyLab
HumboldtStateU.

PEMHYDROGENFUELCELLS

SOURCE:
SchatzEnergyLab
HumboldtStateU.

PEM=ProtonExchangeMembrane
(Nafiontm)

SOMESURPRISINGFACTSABOUTHYDROGEN
Q1)ISHYDROGENArevolutionaryNEW
ENERGYSOURCE?

Wheredoeshydrogencomefrom?

Fossil:natgas,propane,gasoline,methanol
Renewable:electricwind,solar,etc.electrolyzewater
Methane(CH4),methanol(CH3OH),ammonia(NH3?)
A)HYDROGENSTORES&TRANSPORTS
ENERGY.ACARRIERNOTASOURCE.
Q2)WHICHISMOREEFFICIENT,FUEL
CELLORBATTERIES?

A)BATTERIES

H2FuelCellEfficiency
INTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINE

oil(gasoline)>ICengine15%
BATTERYPOWEREDELECTRICVEHICLE
Oil>powerplant>electricity~=45%
transmission~=80%
batterycharging~=80%
electricdrivesystem~=80%

.45x.8x.8x.8=23%
FUELCELLPOWEREDELECTRICVEHICLE
Oil>powerplant>electricity~=45%
electricitytransmission~=80%
H2electrolyzermaxefficiency~=70%
H2fuelcellmaxefficiency~=50%
Electricdrivesystem~=80%

.45x.8x.7x.5x.8=10%

SOLARFUELCELLS?

SOURCE:
Schatz
EnergyLab
Humboldt
StateU.

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