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Food and Digestion

Chapter 11
Food and Energy

Chapter 11 Section 1

Why You Need Food
—Food provides the raw materials necessary to
grow new skin and the energy that powers this
—Nutrients- the substances in food that provide the
raw materials and energy the body needs to
carry out all essential processes
—6 kinds of nutrients- carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
vitamins, minerals, and water
—calorie- the amount of energy needed to raie the
temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius
degree (1 Calorie=1000 calories)
—You must eat a certain number of calories per day
—Carbohydrates- composed of carbon, oxygen, and
hydrogen, are a major source of energy
—Simple carbohydrates- sugars found naturally in fruits,
milk, and some vegetables
—Glucose- major source of energy for your body’s cells
—Complex carbohydrates- made of many sugar
molecules linked together in a chain (starch)
—Fiber- complex carbohydrate found in plant foods that
cannot be broken down into sugar molecules and
passes through the body
—Fiber keeps the digestive system functioning properly
—Fats- high-energy nutrients that are composed of
carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
—Fats contain more than twice as much energy as an
equal amount of carbohydrates
—Fats perform important functions such as forming part
of the structure of cells
—Unsaturated fats- liquid at room temperature; olive oil
—Saturated fats-usually solid at room temperature
—Cholesterol- a waxy, fatlike substance found only in
animal products
—The liver makes all the cholesterol the body needs
—Intake of saturated fats and cholesterol should be
—Proteins- nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
—Proteins are needed for tissue growth and repair
—Meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, beans,
and lentils are proteins
—Amino Acids- small units linked together
chemically to form large protein molecules
—Complete proteins- proteins from animal sources
that contain all the essential amino acids
—Incomplete proteins- from plant sources that lack
one or more of the essential amino acids
—Scurvy- disease caused by the lack of vitamin C
—Vitamins- act as helper molecules in a variety of
chemical reactions within the body
—The body needs only small amounts of vitamins
—Most vitamins must be obtained from food
—Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat, and are stored
in fatty tissues in the body (Vitamins A, D, and K)
—Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are
not stored in the body (Vitamins C & B)
—Minerals are needed by the body in small amounts
—Minerals- nutrients that are not made by living
—Minerals are present in soil and absorbed by
—Water is the most abundant substance in the body
—Water is the most important nutrient because the
body’s vital processes take place in water
—2L needed per day
Food Guide Pyramid
Food Labels
—Food labels allow you to evaluate a single food as well
as to compare the nutritional values of two foods
—Serving Size- standard serving size for each type of
—Calories from Fat- no more than 30% of calories
should come from fat
—Percent Daily Value- indicates how the nutritional
content of one serving fits into the diet of a person
who consumes a total of 2,000 total calories a day
—Ingredients- lists all of the foods that make up a
—List the six nutrients that are needed by the body.
—What information does the Food Guide Pyramid
provide? How many food groups are there?
—Explain how food labels can help a person make
healthy food choices.
—Why should you eat more complex carbohydrates
than simple carbohydrates?
—Evaluate the impact of James Lind’s research into
scurvy. How did this research affect people’s