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Intro.

To Biomedical Engineering
Presentation #1
- EEG -

( ELECTROENCEPHALOGRA
M)
By Dzahiruddin B. Dzulkiflee
Matrc No. :BBET 15015614

Introduction

An Electroencephalogram is a test to measure and


record electrical activity of the brain using an
Electroencephalograph.
The brain produces electrical impulses which can be
picked up by special electrodes and amplified which
is then translated into waves either on a graph paper
or saved on a computer.
EEG activity is very small, ususally measured in
microvolts (V) with frequencies of up to 30 Hz.
Physicians can then analyse the data to diagnose the
patient.

Why it is done.

Sometimes the symptoms and examination of


a patient does not turn out with helpful
information pertaining to their
condition/illness. These are some of the
reasons an EEG may be used for;
Classifying types of seizures
Observing sleep disorders
Identifying damaged areas of the brain as a
result of trauma.
and to determine if a patient is brain dead.

Components

EEG consists of:


Electrodes
Amplifier
Filter
Recording unit

Frequency bands in EEG

Frequency bands in EEG

Signal range: 2V (brain death) several hundred V.


Frequency bands:
Delta (<4 Hz) : normally found only when in deep asleep.
Theta (4-7 Hz) : normally found in sleeping adults and
young children
Alpha (8-13 Hz) : mostly below 50V, normally found in
adult during relaxed and mentally inactive awake ness,
Beta (14-30 Hz) : mostly below 30V, normally found when
you are alert, enhanced by expectancy states and tension
Gamma (>30 Hz) : Usually it is not of clinical and
physiological interests and often filtered out in EEG
recordings.

EEG Test

BEFORE TEST:
Avoid taking certain medicines (sedative, relaxants,
medicine to treat seizures), refer to Doctor, as they can
affect normal brain activity and skew the results.
No foods or drinks containing Caffeine for 12 hours before
test.
Make sure hair is free of oils, lotion, gel and sprays.
Shampoo and rinse with water and do not use conditioner.
If needed, you may need to perform the test while asleep.
Try to sleep as little as possible or avoid sleeping the
night before. Do not take any medicine or substance to
stay awake.

EEG Test

The test is done by an EEG Technologist.


The EEG Technologist will attach multiple flat metal
discs (electrodes) onto the scalp with sticky paste.
An EEG cap may also be used instead of individual
electrodes.
Normally 20 electrodes are sufficient but an EEG
test can use up to 256 electrodes arranged in the
10-20 system.
During Routine EEG, for the duration of the test
patient is told to sit on a chair or lie down on a bed
and must lie still with eyes closed. The patient will
be told to certain things:
Hyperventilate (20 breaths/min, for 3 minutes)
Blink multiple times
Look at strobe light (Photic/Stroboscopic stimulation)

EEG Test

A Sleep EEG is carried out when the patient is asleep.


When asleep brain wave change significantly and useful information
related to the patients condition may be observed.
Done if:
o Normal EEG does not show conclusive feature.
o Test for sleep disorders.
Ambulatory EEG is when brain activity is recorded throughout the
day and night over a period of 1-2 days.
In some patients with epilepsy, routine EEG shows normal or only
minor, nonspecific findings. In such cases, an extended recording that
includes long periods of wakefulness and sleep is desired.
A small portable EEG recorder is given that can be clipped onto
clothing and will record EEG throughout the day.
The patient is free to do daily activities.

EEG Test

Video Telemetry, A.K.A. Video EEG, simultaneously videos


and records brain activity.
Used when an EEG and continuous monitoring are needed. For
example, to see what a child is doing while having a seizure.
This can help diagnose the type of epilepsy, where the seizure
starts and how electrical activity spreads through the brain
Carried out on in-patient basis in purpose built suite.
Takes place throughout the day for up to 5 days or until enough
information is gathered.
The EEG signals are transmitted to a base-station (CPU) where
the video is recorded and kept under surveillance by trained
staff so they can respond immediately if there are any
problems.

EEG Test

After the test is done the electrodes are taken


off of the patient, rinse off the electrolytic gel
and sticky paste and they can be on their way
without any side affects.

Comparison of normal and


abnormal EEG
Normal

Awake adults (mostly alpha &


beta waves)
Both sides of brain show similar
patterns and elec. Activity.
No abnormal bursts (spikes) of
elec. activity & no slow waves
on EEG tracing
Brain wave normal when photic
stimulation, one are of occipital
region have brief response.

Abnormal
2 sides of brain show different
elec. activity.
Spikes in elec. activity.
EEG records changes in brain
waves that may not be in just one
area of the brain.
EEG show Delta waves/ too many
Theta waves in awake adults.
EEG show no elec. activity in the
brain (flat, straight line),
means brain function has stopped

How an EEG detects electrical


impulses in the brain.

NEURONS
Communicate by passing
electric signals (Ions flowing inout of the cell)
Electrical signal from dendrites
are transmitted to the Axon
hillock (gate keeper) where
excitatory (+) and inhibitory
(-) post synaptic potentials
meet before passing through
the axon.
The sum of these post synaptic
potentials must reach a
threshold to pass the signal.
This depolarizes the axon
hillock and starts an Action

How an EEG detects electrical


impulses in the brain.

Although neurons do release an electrical impulse as a


result of the depolarization and repolarization of the
axon during action potential, however, it is too small to
be detected and too weak to pass through tissue and
skull.

How an EEG detects electrical


impulses in the brain.

Pyramidal neurons. One of the most


abundant excitatory cells in the brain
and are mostly found in the outer
parts of the brain in the cerebral
cortex and also in the hippocampus
and amygdala.
Pyramidal neurons are usually
spatially aligned parallel to each other.
Electrical activity of the pyramidal
neuron are often synchronous-which
produces larger signal that can be
measured from the scalp.

How an EEG detects electrical


impulses in the brain

When neighbouring neurons synapse with a


pyramidal neuron, one part becomes more
negatively charged and another positively
charged. This creates a dipole on the cell
which is an electric current that can be
recorded.
However, a single elec. Event is not big
enough to register on an EEG, instead,
-an EEG records the sum of 100s-1000s of
dipoles in specific regions based on 10-20
system mapping.

EEG Artifacts

Not all readings picked up by an EEG are brain


activity and are mostly just noise or artifacts which
are recorded signal that are non-cerebral in origin.
Manufacturers have implemented multiple filtering
systems to automatically discard these artifacts
however, some artifacts behave and seem like an
actual brain wave and can cause misdiagnosis.
They are divided into 2 categories:
Physiological Artifacts
Non-Physiological Artifacts

EEG Artifacts

Physiological
Movement [head, body
scalp]
Bioelectrical potential
generated within body by
moving sources.[eyes,
tongue, swallowing]
Altered volume conductance
due to change in
conductance of tissue [scalp,
muscle, bone] and fluids
[blood]

Non-Physiological
External electrical
interference from other
power sources [cables,
lines, electrical equipment]
Internal electrical
malfunctioning of the
recording unit. [electrode
integrity/positioning
/application, amplifiers,
filters, or paper drives.]

EEG Artifacts
Physiological

Muscle artifact
Eye-blink artifacts
C: Patient blinks
Movement artifact
Swallow artifacts
[muscle+movement]
Pulse artifact
C: Electrode put onto
blood vessel on the scalp

Non-Physiological

60-cycle artifact
C: electrical outlet
spill/ poor
impedance of
recording / ground
electrode not
working properly.
S: use notch
filter/60-cycle