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GENERAL ASPECTS OF HEAT TRANSFER

&
1-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE CONDUCTION

Diference Between Temperature and Heat


Temperature is a measure of the amount of energy
stored by the molecules of a substance. It manifests
itself as a degree of hotness, and can be used to predict
the direction of heat transfer.
The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the
temperature difference.
Heat, is energy in transit. H e a t l i ke w o r k i s a
transient quantity which only appears at the
boundary (While a change is taking place within
the system)

Temperature has only magnitude . it is a scalar


quantity. Heat transfer has direction as well as
magnitude. it is a vector quantity.

Difference b/w Thermodynamics and


HeatTransfer
Thermodynamics tells us:

how much heat is transferred (Q)


how much work is done (W)
final state of the system
Heat transfer tells us:
how (with what modes)Q is transferred
at what rate Q is transferred
temperature distribution inside the body

Mechanisms (Modes) of Heat Transfer


Conduction: transfer of heat across
a substance without appreciable
displacement of
molecules
forming the substance
Convection: heat transfer by fluid
currents in a gas or liquid, due natural
flow or forced flow. It is an important
mechanism of energy transfer between
a solid surface and a liquid or a gas.
Radiation: heat transfer due to
electromagnetic waves across a
space, even in a vacuum.

All mechanisms may be involved in practical heat transfer, but the


dominant mechanism differs in different cases.

Heat flow depends on the temperature difference.

Heat Conduction
Conduction is the transfer of heat through materials by the direct
contact of matter.
Dense metals like copper and aluminum are very good thermal
conductors.
A thermal insulator is a material that conducts heat poorly.

Convection
Convection is the transfer of heat
by the motion of liquids and gases.
Convection in a gas occurs because
gas expands when heated.
Convection in liquids
occurs
because of differences in density.

Hot water is likewise less dense than cold water and rises,
causing convection currents which transport energy.

Radiation
Radiation is heat transfer by
electromagnetic waves.
Thermal
radiation
is
electromagnetic waves (including
light) produced by objects because
of their temperature.
The higher the temperature of an
object, the more thermal radiation
it gives off.

Qabs

Power absorbed by surface of an object

dQabs
Pabs
Aa Ts 4
dt

A, a

Power radiated from the surface of an object

Ts

dQrad
4
Prad
Ae T
dt
Surface Area, A
Absorption coefficient, a = 0 to 1
Emissivity, e = 0 to 1
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
= 5.67 x 10-8
W.m-2.K-4

Pnet Prad Pabs

A, e,
T

Qra
d

Pnet > 0 net heat transfer out of system

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction


The rate of heat conduction through a medium in a specified
direction (say, in the x-direction) is expressed by Fouriers law
of heat conduction for one-dimensional heat conduction as:

dT
Q kA
dx
Heat is conducted in the direction of
decreasing temperature, and thus the
temperature gradient (dT/dX) is negative
when heat is conducted in the positive xdirection.

For conduction between two plane surfaces (eg heat loss


through the wall of a house) the rate of heat transfer is
steady-state
TC

TH

Q
A

energy
transferr
ed
through
slab
Q

Q
TH TC
kA
t
L
Q

dQ
dT
k A
dt
dx

Thermal conductivity k (W.m-1.K-1)


heat current H = dQ/dt

Thermal Conduction through a uniform slab

steady-state

TH

Q
TH TC
kA
t
L
dQ
dT
k A
dt
dx

temperature gradient

TC
0

dT
dx

Heat Flux
Heat flux is the flow of heat per unit area and per unit time . It
is directly proportional to the temperature gradient.
From one dimensional Fourier's law:

dT
Q kA
,
dx

Q
dT
q k
A
dx

where:
q = the heat flux
k = the coefficient of thermal conductivity
T = the temperature
x = a spatial coordinate

Thermal Conductivity

The thermal conductivity of a material describes how well the


material conducts heat.
Conductivity depends on how molecules are
structurally bonded together, which relates to the
state of matter.
Solids Molecules strongly bonded High conductivity
Liquids Molecules weakly bonded Some conductivity
Gases Molecules not bonded Low conductivity

Material

Thermal
conductivity k
(W.m-1.K-1)

Diamond

2450

Cu

385

Al

205

Glass

0.8

Water

0.6

Wood

0.2

Foam

0.01

Air

0.024

Thermal conductivity (k ) is
the property of the material
Thermal conductivity
of material is due to
flow of free electrons
(in metals) and lattice
vibration ( in fluids)
K (Pure metal)>
K(alloy)>K(Liq.)>K(ga
s)

Electrical Analogy of Heat Transfer


A resistance can be defined as the ratio of a
driving potential to a corresponding transfer rate.

V
R
i
Electrical resistance is to conduction of electricity as thermal
resistance is to conduction of heat.
The analog of Q is current, and the analog of the temperature
difference, T1 - T2, is voltage difference.
From this perspective the heat transfer from a slab is written as:

T1 T2
Q
Rtotal

Thermal Resistance For Conducton


dT
kA
dx

Q cond , wall

(W)

Temperature through the wall varies


linearly with X . Temperature
distribution in the wall under steady
conditions is a straight line.

x 0

T2

cond , wall

Q cond , wall

dx kAdT
T T1

T1 T2
kA
L

T1 T2
kA
L

T1 T2

Rwall

Q cond , wall
Q cond , wall
Rwall

kA

(W)

(0C / W)

Thermal
Resistance
depends on the geometry
and the thermal properties
of the medium

V1 V2
I
Re
Re

Re L

= Electrical resistance

eA

V1 V2 = Voltage

difference across
the resistance

=Electrical
conductivi
ty

Thermal Resistance For Convecton

Q conv hAS (TS T )

Q conv

TS T

Rconv

Rconv

hAS

Rconv

(W)

(0C / W)

= Convection resistance of surface


=

Convection heat transfer coefficient

Thermal Resistance For Radiation

4
Q rad AS (TS4 Tsurr
)

Q rad

TS Tsurr
hrad AS (TS Tsurr )
Rrad

Rrad

hrad AS

hrad

Qrad

AS (TS Tsurr )

hcombined hconv hrad

Thermal Resistance Series Arrangement

T1 T 2
Q
Rtotal

Rtotal Rconv ,1 Rwall ,1 Rwall , 2 Rconv , 2


Rtotal

L1
L2
1
1

h1 A k1 A k 2 A h2 A

Thermal Resstance Parallel Arrangement

T1 T2 T1 T2
1 1
Q Q1 Q 2

(T1 T2 )( )
R1
R2
R1 R2

T1 T2
Q
Rtotal

1
Rtotal

1
1

R1 R2

Rtotal

R1 R2
R1 R2

Combned Seres-Parallel Arrangement

T1 T
Rtotal

Rtotal R12 R3 Rconv

R1 R2

R3 Rconv
R1 R2

L1
R1
k1 A1

R2

L3
R3
k 3 A3

Rconv

L2
k 2 A2

1
hA3

ONE DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE


HEAT CONDUCTION

The Plane Wall


Consider a plane wall between
two
fluids
of
different
temperature
Heat Equation:

d dT
k 0
dx
dx

Temperature Distribution for Constant k :

T x Ts ,1 Ts ,2 Ts ,1

x
L

Heat Flux and Heat Rate:

dT kA
qx kA Ts ,1 Ts ,2
dx L

dT k
qx k
Ts ,1 Ts ,2
dx L

Thermal Resistances:
Conduction in a plane wall:

Rt ,cond

kA

1
Rt ,conv
hA
1
Rt , rad
hr A

Convection:
Radiation

Thermal Resistance for Unit Surface Area:

Rt,cond

Rt,conv

Rt, rad

hr

Thermal circuit for plane wall with adjoining fluids:

Rtot

1
L
1

h1 A kA h 2 A

qx

T,1 T,2
Rtot

Composite Wall with Negligible Contact Resistance:

qx

T,1 T,4
Rtot

Rtot
1 1 LA LB LC 1
Rtot
A h1 k A k B kC h4
A

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) :


A modified form of Newtons Law of Cooling to encompass
multiple resistances to heat transfer.

qx UAToverall

Rtot

UA

Thermal Contact Resistance


Thermal contact resistance is inverse of thermal contact conduction
Values depend on: Materials of layer 1 and 2, surface finishes,
and contact pressure

Q Q contact Q gap

Q hc ATint erface

hc

Q/ A
Tint erface

(W/m2 0C)

hC: thermal contact conductance

1 Tint erface
Rc

hc
Q/ A

(m2 0C/ W)

Heat is lost from a


hot-water pipe to the
air outside in the radial
direction.
Heat transfer from a
long pipe is one
dimensional

Heat Conducton in Cylnder


Heat Equation:

1 d
dT
kr 0
r dr
dr

Temperature Distribution for Constant k

r
T r
ln Ts ,2
ln r1 / r2 r2

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

Heat Flux and Heat Rate:

qr k

dT
k

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

dr r ln r2 / r1

2 k
qr 2 rqr
Ts ,1 Ts ,2

ln r2 / r1
qr 2 rLqr

2 Lk
Ts ,1 Ts ,2

ln r2 / r1

Conduction Resistance:

Rt ,cond
Rt,cond

ln r2 / r1
2 Lk
ln r2 / r1
2 k

Units K/W
Units m K/W

Composite Tube Wall :

qr

T,1 T,4
Rtot

UA T,1 T,4

U i Ai Rtot

Spherical Shell
Heat Equation:

1 d 2 dT
r
0
2 dr
dr
r

Temperature Distribution for Constant

T r Ts ,1 Ts ,1 Ts ,2

1 r1/ r

1 r1 / r 2

Heat flux, Heat Rate and Thermal Resistance:

dT
k
qr k
2
dr r 1/ r1 1/ r2

Ts,1 Ts,2

4 k
qr 4 r qr
Ts ,1 Ts ,2

1/ r1 1/ r2
2

Rt ,cond

1/ r1 1/ r2

4 k

Composite Shell:

Toverall
qr
UAToverall
Rtot

UA Rtot 1 Constant
U i Ai Rtot

Depends on Ai

Crtcal Radus of Insulaton


Thickness of insulation up to which heat flow increases and after
which heat flow decreases.
T1 T
T1 T
Q

1
Rins Rconv ln(r2 / r1 )

2Lk
h(2r2 L)

d Q/ dr2 0
k
rcr ,cylinder
h
k =Thermal conductivity

rcr , sphere

2k

h = External convection heat


transfer coefficient

Selection of Insulaton Thckness


Before insulation check for critical radius

r2 rcr
r2 rcr
r2 rcr

max