You are on page 1of 39

# GENERAL ASPECTS OF HEAT TRANSFER

&

## Diference Between Temperature and Heat

Temperature is a measure of the amount of energy
stored by the molecules of a substance. It manifests
itself as a degree of hotness, and can be used to predict
the direction of heat transfer.
The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the
temperature difference.
Heat, is energy in transit. H e a t l i ke w o r k i s a
transient quantity which only appears at the
boundary (While a change is taking place within
the system)

## Temperature has only magnitude . it is a scalar

quantity. Heat transfer has direction as well as
magnitude. it is a vector quantity.

## Difference b/w Thermodynamics and

HeatTransfer
Thermodynamics tells us:

## how much heat is transferred (Q)

how much work is done (W)
final state of the system
Heat transfer tells us:
how (with what modes)Q is transferred
at what rate Q is transferred
temperature distribution inside the body

## Mechanisms (Modes) of Heat Transfer

Conduction: transfer of heat across
a substance without appreciable
displacement of
molecules
forming the substance
Convection: heat transfer by fluid
currents in a gas or liquid, due natural
flow or forced flow. It is an important
mechanism of energy transfer between
a solid surface and a liquid or a gas.
electromagnetic waves across a
space, even in a vacuum.

## All mechanisms may be involved in practical heat transfer, but the

dominant mechanism differs in different cases.

## Heat flow depends on the temperature difference.

Heat Conduction
Conduction is the transfer of heat through materials by the direct
contact of matter.
Dense metals like copper and aluminum are very good thermal
conductors.
A thermal insulator is a material that conducts heat poorly.

Convection
Convection is the transfer of heat
by the motion of liquids and gases.
Convection in a gas occurs because
gas expands when heated.
Convection in liquids
occurs
because of differences in density.

Hot water is likewise less dense than cold water and rises,
causing convection currents which transport energy.

electromagnetic waves.
Thermal
is
electromagnetic waves (including
light) produced by objects because
of their temperature.
The higher the temperature of an
it gives off.

Qabs

dQabs
Pabs
Aa Ts 4
dt

A, a

## Power radiated from the surface of an object

Ts

4
Ae T
dt
Surface Area, A
Absorption coefficient, a = 0 to 1
Emissivity, e = 0 to 1
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
= 5.67 x 10-8
W.m-2.K-4

A, e,
T

Qra
d

## Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

The rate of heat conduction through a medium in a specified
direction (say, in the x-direction) is expressed by Fouriers law
of heat conduction for one-dimensional heat conduction as:

dT
Q kA
dx
Heat is conducted in the direction of
decreasing temperature, and thus the
when heat is conducted in the positive xdirection.

## For conduction between two plane surfaces (eg heat loss

through the wall of a house) the rate of heat transfer is
TC

TH

Q
A

energy
transferr
ed
through
slab
Q

Q
TH TC
kA
t
L
Q

dQ
dT
k A
dt
dx

## Thermal conductivity k (W.m-1.K-1)

heat current H = dQ/dt

## Thermal Conduction through a uniform slab

TH

Q
TH TC
kA
t
L
dQ
dT
k A
dt
dx

TC
0

dT
dx

Heat Flux
Heat flux is the flow of heat per unit area and per unit time . It
is directly proportional to the temperature gradient.
From one dimensional Fourier's law:

dT
Q kA
,
dx

Q
dT
q k
A
dx

where:
q = the heat flux
k = the coefficient of thermal conductivity
T = the temperature
x = a spatial coordinate

Thermal Conductivity

## The thermal conductivity of a material describes how well the

material conducts heat.
Conductivity depends on how molecules are
structurally bonded together, which relates to the
state of matter.
Solids Molecules strongly bonded High conductivity
Liquids Molecules weakly bonded Some conductivity
Gases Molecules not bonded Low conductivity

Material

Thermal
conductivity k
(W.m-1.K-1)

Diamond

2450

Cu

385

Al

205

Glass

0.8

Water

0.6

Wood

0.2

Foam

0.01

Air

0.024

Thermal conductivity (k ) is
the property of the material
Thermal conductivity
of material is due to
flow of free electrons
(in metals) and lattice
vibration ( in fluids)
K (Pure metal)>
K(alloy)>K(Liq.)>K(ga
s)

## Electrical Analogy of Heat Transfer

A resistance can be defined as the ratio of a
driving potential to a corresponding transfer rate.

V
R
i
Electrical resistance is to conduction of electricity as thermal
resistance is to conduction of heat.
The analog of Q is current, and the analog of the temperature
difference, T1 - T2, is voltage difference.
From this perspective the heat transfer from a slab is written as:

T1 T2
Q
Rtotal

dT
kA
dx

Q cond , wall

(W)

## Temperature through the wall varies

linearly with X . Temperature
distribution in the wall under steady
conditions is a straight line.

x 0

T2

cond , wall

Q cond , wall

T T1

T1 T2
kA
L

T1 T2
kA
L

T1 T2

Rwall

Q cond , wall
Q cond , wall
Rwall

kA

(W)

(0C / W)

Thermal
Resistance
depends on the geometry
and the thermal properties
of the medium

V1 V2
I
Re
Re

Re L

= Electrical resistance

eA

V1 V2 = Voltage

difference across
the resistance

=Electrical
conductivi
ty

Q conv

TS T

Rconv

Rconv

hAS

Rconv

(W)

(0C / W)

=

4
)

TS Tsurr

AS (TS Tsurr )

T1 T 2
Q
Rtotal

## Rtotal Rconv ,1 Rwall ,1 Rwall , 2 Rconv , 2

Rtotal

L1
L2
1
1

h1 A k1 A k 2 A h2 A

T1 T2 T1 T2
1 1
Q Q1 Q 2

(T1 T2 )( )
R1
R2
R1 R2

T1 T2
Q
Rtotal

1
Rtotal

1
1

R1 R2

Rtotal

R1 R2
R1 R2

T1 T
Rtotal

R1 R2

R3 Rconv
R1 R2

L1
R1
k1 A1

R2

L3
R3
k 3 A3

Rconv

L2
k 2 A2

1
hA3

HEAT CONDUCTION

## The Plane Wall

Consider a plane wall between
two
fluids
of
different
temperature
Heat Equation:

d dT
k 0
dx
dx

## Temperature Distribution for Constant k :

T x Ts ,1 Ts ,2 Ts ,1

x
L

## Heat Flux and Heat Rate:

dT kA
qx kA Ts ,1 Ts ,2
dx L

dT k
qx k
Ts ,1 Ts ,2
dx L

Thermal Resistances:
Conduction in a plane wall:

Rt ,cond

kA

1
Rt ,conv
hA
1
hr A

Convection:

Rt,cond

Rt,conv

hr

Rtot

1
L
1

h1 A kA h 2 A

qx

T,1 T,2
Rtot

## Composite Wall with Negligible Contact Resistance:

qx

T,1 T,4
Rtot

Rtot
1 1 LA LB LC 1
Rtot
A h1 k A k B kC h4
A

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) :

A modified form of Newtons Law of Cooling to encompass
multiple resistances to heat transfer.

qx UAToverall

Rtot

UA

## Thermal Contact Resistance

Thermal contact resistance is inverse of thermal contact conduction
Values depend on: Materials of layer 1 and 2, surface finishes,
and contact pressure

Q Q contact Q gap

Q hc ATint erface

hc

Q/ A
Tint erface

(W/m2 0C)

1 Tint erface
Rc

hc
Q/ A

(m2 0C/ W)

## Heat is lost from a

hot-water pipe to the
direction.
Heat transfer from a
long pipe is one
dimensional

Heat Equation:

1 d
dT
kr 0
r dr
dr

r
T r
ln Ts ,2
ln r1 / r2 r2

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

## Heat Flux and Heat Rate:

qr k

dT
k

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

dr r ln r2 / r1

2 k
qr 2 rqr
Ts ,1 Ts ,2

ln r2 / r1
qr 2 rLqr

2 Lk
Ts ,1 Ts ,2

ln r2 / r1

Conduction Resistance:

Rt ,cond
Rt,cond

ln r2 / r1
2 Lk
ln r2 / r1
2 k

Units K/W
Units m K/W

qr

T,1 T,4
Rtot

UA T,1 T,4

U i Ai Rtot

Spherical Shell
Heat Equation:

1 d 2 dT
r
0
2 dr
dr
r

## Temperature Distribution for Constant

T r Ts ,1 Ts ,1 Ts ,2

1 r1/ r

1 r1 / r 2

## Heat flux, Heat Rate and Thermal Resistance:

dT
k
qr k
2
dr r 1/ r1 1/ r2

Ts,1 Ts,2

4 k
qr 4 r qr
Ts ,1 Ts ,2

1/ r1 1/ r2
2

Rt ,cond

1/ r1 1/ r2

4 k

Composite Shell:

Toverall
qr
UAToverall
Rtot

UA Rtot 1 Constant
U i Ai Rtot

Depends on Ai

Thickness of insulation up to which heat flow increases and after
which heat flow decreases.
T1 T
T1 T
Q

1
Rins Rconv ln(r2 / r1 )

2Lk
h(2r2 L)

d Q/ dr2 0
k
rcr ,cylinder
h
k =Thermal conductivity

rcr , sphere

2k

## h = External convection heat

transfer coefficient

## Selection of Insulaton Thckness

Before insulation check for critical radius

r2 rcr
r2 rcr
r2 rcr

max