one dimensional heat conduction

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one dimensional heat conduction

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1-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE CONDUCTION

Temperature is a measure of the amount of energy

stored by the molecules of a substance. It manifests

itself as a degree of hotness, and can be used to predict

the direction of heat transfer.

The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the

temperature difference.

Heat, is energy in transit. H e a t l i ke w o r k i s a

transient quantity which only appears at the

boundary (While a change is taking place within

the system)

quantity. Heat transfer has direction as well as

magnitude. it is a vector quantity.

HeatTransfer

Thermodynamics tells us:

how much work is done (W)

final state of the system

Heat transfer tells us:

how (with what modes)Q is transferred

at what rate Q is transferred

temperature distribution inside the body

Conduction: transfer of heat across

a substance without appreciable

displacement of

molecules

forming the substance

Convection: heat transfer by fluid

currents in a gas or liquid, due natural

flow or forced flow. It is an important

mechanism of energy transfer between

a solid surface and a liquid or a gas.

Radiation: heat transfer due to

electromagnetic waves across a

space, even in a vacuum.

dominant mechanism differs in different cases.

Heat Conduction

Conduction is the transfer of heat through materials by the direct

contact of matter.

Dense metals like copper and aluminum are very good thermal

conductors.

A thermal insulator is a material that conducts heat poorly.

Convection

Convection is the transfer of heat

by the motion of liquids and gases.

Convection in a gas occurs because

gas expands when heated.

Convection in liquids

occurs

because of differences in density.

Hot water is likewise less dense than cold water and rises,

causing convection currents which transport energy.

Radiation

Radiation is heat transfer by

electromagnetic waves.

Thermal

radiation

is

electromagnetic waves (including

light) produced by objects because

of their temperature.

The higher the temperature of an

object, the more thermal radiation

it gives off.

Qabs

dQabs

Pabs

Aa Ts 4

dt

A, a

Ts

dQrad

4

Prad

Ae T

dt

Surface Area, A

Absorption coefficient, a = 0 to 1

Emissivity, e = 0 to 1

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

= 5.67 x 10-8

W.m-2.K-4

A, e,

T

Qra

d

The rate of heat conduction through a medium in a specified

direction (say, in the x-direction) is expressed by Fouriers law

of heat conduction for one-dimensional heat conduction as:

dT

Q kA

dx

Heat is conducted in the direction of

decreasing temperature, and thus the

temperature gradient (dT/dX) is negative

when heat is conducted in the positive xdirection.

through the wall of a house) the rate of heat transfer is

steady-state

TC

TH

Q

A

energy

transferr

ed

through

slab

Q

Q

TH TC

kA

t

L

Q

dQ

dT

k A

dt

dx

heat current H = dQ/dt

steady-state

TH

Q

TH TC

kA

t

L

dQ

dT

k A

dt

dx

temperature gradient

TC

0

dT

dx

Heat Flux

Heat flux is the flow of heat per unit area and per unit time . It

is directly proportional to the temperature gradient.

From one dimensional Fourier's law:

dT

Q kA

,

dx

Q

dT

q k

A

dx

where:

q = the heat flux

k = the coefficient of thermal conductivity

T = the temperature

x = a spatial coordinate

Thermal Conductivity

material conducts heat.

Conductivity depends on how molecules are

structurally bonded together, which relates to the

state of matter.

Solids Molecules strongly bonded High conductivity

Liquids Molecules weakly bonded Some conductivity

Gases Molecules not bonded Low conductivity

Material

Thermal

conductivity k

(W.m-1.K-1)

Diamond

2450

Cu

385

Al

205

Glass

0.8

Water

0.6

Wood

0.2

Foam

0.01

Air

0.024

Thermal conductivity (k ) is

the property of the material

Thermal conductivity

of material is due to

flow of free electrons

(in metals) and lattice

vibration ( in fluids)

K (Pure metal)>

K(alloy)>K(Liq.)>K(ga

s)

A resistance can be defined as the ratio of a

driving potential to a corresponding transfer rate.

V

R

i

Electrical resistance is to conduction of electricity as thermal

resistance is to conduction of heat.

The analog of Q is current, and the analog of the temperature

difference, T1 - T2, is voltage difference.

From this perspective the heat transfer from a slab is written as:

T1 T2

Q

Rtotal

dT

kA

dx

Q cond , wall

(W)

linearly with X . Temperature

distribution in the wall under steady

conditions is a straight line.

x 0

T2

cond , wall

Q cond , wall

dx kAdT

T T1

T1 T2

kA

L

T1 T2

kA

L

T1 T2

Rwall

Q cond , wall

Q cond , wall

Rwall

kA

(W)

(0C / W)

Thermal

Resistance

depends on the geometry

and the thermal properties

of the medium

V1 V2

I

Re

Re

Re L

= Electrical resistance

eA

V1 V2 = Voltage

difference across

the resistance

=Electrical

conductivi

ty

Q conv

TS T

Rconv

Rconv

hAS

Rconv

(W)

(0C / W)

=

4

Q rad AS (TS4 Tsurr

)

Q rad

TS Tsurr

hrad AS (TS Tsurr )

Rrad

Rrad

hrad AS

hrad

Qrad

AS (TS Tsurr )

T1 T 2

Q

Rtotal

Rtotal

L1

L2

1

1

h1 A k1 A k 2 A h2 A

T1 T2 T1 T2

1 1

Q Q1 Q 2

(T1 T2 )( )

R1

R2

R1 R2

T1 T2

Q

Rtotal

1

Rtotal

1

1

R1 R2

Rtotal

R1 R2

R1 R2

T1 T

Rtotal

R1 R2

R3 Rconv

R1 R2

L1

R1

k1 A1

R2

L3

R3

k 3 A3

Rconv

L2

k 2 A2

1

hA3

HEAT CONDUCTION

Consider a plane wall between

two

fluids

of

different

temperature

Heat Equation:

d dT

k 0

dx

dx

T x Ts ,1 Ts ,2 Ts ,1

x

L

dT kA

qx kA Ts ,1 Ts ,2

dx L

dT k

qx k

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

dx L

Thermal Resistances:

Conduction in a plane wall:

Rt ,cond

kA

1

Rt ,conv

hA

1

Rt , rad

hr A

Convection:

Radiation

Rt,cond

Rt,conv

Rt, rad

hr

Rtot

1

L

1

h1 A kA h 2 A

qx

T,1 T,2

Rtot

qx

T,1 T,4

Rtot

Rtot

1 1 LA LB LC 1

Rtot

A h1 k A k B kC h4

A

A modified form of Newtons Law of Cooling to encompass

multiple resistances to heat transfer.

qx UAToverall

Rtot

UA

Thermal contact resistance is inverse of thermal contact conduction

Values depend on: Materials of layer 1 and 2, surface finishes,

and contact pressure

Q Q contact Q gap

Q hc ATint erface

hc

Q/ A

Tint erface

(W/m2 0C)

1 Tint erface

Rc

hc

Q/ A

(m2 0C/ W)

hot-water pipe to the

air outside in the radial

direction.

Heat transfer from a

long pipe is one

dimensional

Heat Equation:

1 d

dT

kr 0

r dr

dr

r

T r

ln Ts ,2

ln r1 / r2 r2

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

qr k

dT

k

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

dr r ln r2 / r1

2 k

qr 2 rqr

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

ln r2 / r1

qr 2 rLqr

2 Lk

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

ln r2 / r1

Conduction Resistance:

Rt ,cond

Rt,cond

ln r2 / r1

2 Lk

ln r2 / r1

2 k

Units K/W

Units m K/W

qr

T,1 T,4

Rtot

UA T,1 T,4

U i Ai Rtot

Spherical Shell

Heat Equation:

1 d 2 dT

r

0

2 dr

dr

r

T r Ts ,1 Ts ,1 Ts ,2

1 r1/ r

1 r1 / r 2

dT

k

qr k

2

dr r 1/ r1 1/ r2

Ts,1 Ts,2

4 k

qr 4 r qr

Ts ,1 Ts ,2

1/ r1 1/ r2

2

Rt ,cond

1/ r1 1/ r2

4 k

Composite Shell:

Toverall

qr

UAToverall

Rtot

UA Rtot 1 Constant

U i Ai Rtot

Depends on Ai

Thickness of insulation up to which heat flow increases and after

which heat flow decreases.

T1 T

T1 T

Q

1

Rins Rconv ln(r2 / r1 )

2Lk

h(2r2 L)

d Q/ dr2 0

k

rcr ,cylinder

h

k =Thermal conductivity

rcr , sphere

2k

transfer coefficient

Before insulation check for critical radius

r2 rcr

r2 rcr

r2 rcr

max

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