Monroe L. WeberShirk
normal depth
DischargeDepth relationships
Channel transitions
Control structures (sluice gates, weirs)
Rapid changes in bottom elevation or cross section
Classification of Flows
Steady and Unsteady
(Temporal)
Steady: velocity at a given point does not change with
time
Conservation of Momentum
losses due to shear at the boundaries
useful when energy losses are unknown
Expansion
____________
A
P
geometry
Use Energy, Momentum, Empirical or
Dimensional Analysis?
What controls depth given a discharge?
Why doesnt the flow accelerate?
hl d
0
4l
Force balance
oP x
Shear force =________
2g
P
Wetted perimeter = __
x sin
Gravitational force = A
________
Ax sin o Px 0
o
A
P
= Rh
A
P
sin
a
d
Shear force
Hydraulic radius
t o =g Rh S
W cos
sin
cos
Turbulence
Relationship between shear and velocity? ___________
W sin
sin
Open Conduits:
Dimensional Analysis
Geometric parameters
Hydraulic radius (Rh)
___________________
Channel length (l)
___________________
Roughness ()
___________________
Rh
A
P
C p = f , , Re, Fr , M, W
Rh Rh
No!
Does Fr affect shear? _________
V
Fr =
yg
2p
Ch
l
V 2
2 ghl
V2
Pressure Coefficient
(Energy Loss Coefficient)
p hl
hl =S f l
Friction slope
CS f
2 gS f l
= 2
V
Slope of EGL
Dimensional Analysis
CS f
l e
= f , , Re
Rh Rh
CS f
l e
= f , Re
Rh Rh
CS f
2 gS f l
= 2
V
Rh
e
Rh
C
=l
CS f
= f , Re=l (like f in DarcyWeisbach)
Sf
l
l
Rh
2
LV
hl f
D 2g
2 gS f l Rh
2g
l V2
2
gS
R
f
h
V
=
S f Rh
Sf =
=l
V
=
2
l
Rh 2 g
V
l
l
compare
2g
V=
S f Rh
l
For a pipe
d 4 Rh
l V2
hl =f
4 Rh 2 g
V2
S f Rh =f
8g
d 2
d
4
Rh
P
d
4
A
V=
8g
S f Rh
f
2.5
2 log
Similar to Colebrook
f
Re f
12 Rh
1
For rockbedded streams
f
2
where d84 = rock size larger than 84% of the
Rh
1.2 2.03log
rocks in a random sample
d84
1.49
n
Q VA
1
n
ARh2 / 3 S o1 / 2
(English system)
Bottom slope
very sensitive to n
Values of Manning n
Lined Canals
Cement plaster
Untreated gunite
Wood, planed
Wood, unplaned
Concrete, trowled
Concrete, wood forms, unfinished
Rubble in cement
Asphalt, smooth
Asphalt, rough
Natural Channels
Gravel beds, straight
Gravel beds plus large boulders
Earth, straight, with some grass
Earth, winding, no vegetation
Earth , winding with vegetation
n 0.031d 1 / 6 d in ft
n 0.038d 1 / 6 d in m
n
0.011
0.016
0.012
0.013
0.012
0.015
0.020
0.013
0.016
n = f(surface
roughness,
channel
irregularity,
stage...)
0.025
0.040
0.026
0.030
0.050
Trapezoidal Channel
1
n
ARh2 / 3 S o1 / 2
+b
P =2
y
+
yz
(
)
2 1/ 2
P =2 y
1 +z
+b
Use Solver!
z
b
r y
arccos
r
radians
A r 2 sin cos
T 2r sin
P 2 r
Maximum discharge
0.938d
when y = ______
A
T
Velocity Distribution
1
v y V
k 0.4
y
gdS 0 1 ln
d
V = average velocity
d = channel depth
0.4d
0.2d
1
y= d
e
0.8d
0.368d
V12
hL =S f Dx
2g
V22
2g
energy
______
grade line
hydraulic
_______
grade line
y1
y2
S o x
x
Energy Relationships
Pipe flow
p1
V12 p2
V22
+z1 +a 1
= +z2 +a 2
+hL
g
2g g
2g
z  measured from
horizontal datum
2
2
V
V
y1 +So Dx + = y2 + +S f Dx
2g
2g
Turbulent flow ( 1)
y  depth of flow
Specific Energy
The sum of the depth of flow and the
velocity head is the specific energy:
E y
V2
2g
E1 S o x E2 S f x
+ pressure
y  _______
potential energy
V2
2g
 _______
kinetic energy
Specific Energy
In a channel with constant discharge, Q
Q A1V1 A2V2
V2
Q2
E y
E y
where A=f(y)
2
2g
2gA
Consider rectangular channel (A = By) and Q = qB
q is the discharge per unit width of channel
q2
E y
y
2gy 2
A
3 roots (one is negative)
B
2
How many possible depths given a specific energy? _____
E y
sluice gate
q = 5.5 m2/s
EGL y2 = 0.45 m
V2 = 12.2 m/s
1
E2 = 8 m
q2
2gy 2
vena contracta
2
0
9 10
E1 E2
Given downstream depth and discharge, find upstream depth.
y1 and y2 are ___________
alternate depths (same specific energy)
E
4
3
EGL
y1
2
y2 1
E1 E2
0
0
2
E
E y
q2
2gy 2
as sluice gate is raised y1 approaches y2 and E is minimized:
Maximum discharge for given energy.
4
3
Energy conserved
2
E
0
0
2
E
E1 =E2 +Dy
Max Step Up
Short, smooth step with maximum rise y in channel
4
3
2
1
0
0
2
E
2
E
E1 =E2 +Dy
4
3
0
0
2
E
0
0
2
E
E1 =E2 +Dy
yc
Critical Flow
3
2
1
0
0
Arbitrary crosssection
Q 2Tc
gAc3
QT
gA
Fr
T
y
dy
dA
A
P
dA =Tdy
T=surface width
V 2T
gA
Fr
A
=D
T
Hydraulic Depth
Critical Flow:
Rectangular channel
1
Q 2Tc
gAc3
Q qT
q 2T 3
3
c
gy T
yc
g
gyc3
T Tc
Ac ycT
Ac
q2
gyc3
1/ 3
yc
yc
g
Vc
yc g
yc
yc3
yc
V2
2g
Vc2
Kinetic energy
Potential energy
2g
E yc
q Vc yc
because
inertial force
gravity force
Froude number
Vc2
E y
Vc2 yc2
1/ 3
yc
2
yc
2
3
Critical Depth
Minimum energy for a given q
dE
dy
0
Occurs when
=___
Vc2 yc
=
2g 2
When kinetic = potential! ________
Fr=1
4
Super
Fr>1 = ______critical
Sub
Fr<1 = ______critical
3
y
q
T
Vc
=
=Q
Fr =
3
3
gA
yc g
gyc
2
1
0
0
2
E
Critical Flow
2
1
0
0
2
E
Characteristics
Unstable surface
Series of standing waves
dE
dy
Occurrence
Broad crested weir (and other weirs)
Channel Controls (rapid changes in crosssection)
Over falls
Changes in channel slope from mild to steep
BroadCrested Weir
q
yc
g
gy
3
c
yc
Q =b gyc3
E
3/ 2
E 3/ 2
2
H
3
Q Cd b g
yc
Broadcrested
weir
Hard to measure yc
2
Qb g
3
yc
1/ 3
3/ 2
yc m
yc=0.3
Broadcrested
weir
Hydraulic Jump
Used for energy dissipation
Occurs when flow transitions from
supercritical to subcritical
base of spillway
Steep slope to mild slope
Hydraulic Jump
M1 M 2 W Fp Fp Fss Conservation of Momentum
hL
EGL
M 1 x M 2 x Fp Fp
1
1x
2x
y2
M 1 x V12 A1
y1
M 2 x V A2
2
2
QV1 QV2 p1 A1 p2 A2
A1
A2
gy1 A1
2
gy2 A2
2
r gy
p=
2
Q
A
Hydraulic Jump:
Conjugate Depths
For a rectangular channel make the following substitutions
A By
Fr1 =
V1
gy1
Much algebra
Q By1V1
Froude number
y2
y1
2
1 8 Fr12
y2  1 + 1 +8 Fr12
=
y1
2
Hydraulic Jump:
Energy Loss and Length
Energy
Loss
E y
q2
E1 E2 hL
algebra
hL
y2 y1 3
4 y1 y2
2gy 2
significant energy loss (to turbulence) in jump
Length
of jump
Specific Momentum
gy1 A1 Q 2 gy2 A2 Q 2
2
A1
2
A2
y1 A1 Q 2
y2 A2 Q 2
2
A1 g
2
A2 g
y12 q 2
y22 q 2
2 y1 g
2 y2 g
When is M minimum?
dM
q
y 2
dy
y g
2
q 3
y Critical depth!
g
2
Sluice gate
2m
10 cm
S = 0.005
V22 V12
So dx y2 y1
S f dx
2 g 2 g
dy y2 y1
V 2
dy d
S f dx So dx
2 g
d V
dx
dx
Sf
So
dy dy 2 g
dy
dy
dy
dy
y
A
P
dy
y
dA
A
P
2Q 2 dA
Q 2T
d V 2
d Q 2
Fr 2
2 gA3 dy
gA3
dy 2 g
dy 2 gA2
dy d V 2
dx
dx
Sf
So
dy dy 2 g
dy
dy
1 Fr S f
2
dy
dx
dx
dy
So
So S f
1 Fr 2
dx
dy
Change in KE
Change in PE
dA Tdy
So S f
1 Fr 2
constant
yn is when So =S f
Surface Profiles
Mild slope (yn>yc)
in a long channel subcritical flow will occur
Surface Profiles
Normal depth
Obstruction
Steep slope (S2)
Sluice gate
Steep slope
dx
So S f
1 Fr
S0  Sf
+

1  Fr2
+
+
dy/dx
+

yn
yc
dy
Hydraulic Jump
2
1
0
0
2
E
S0  Sf
1  Fr2
dy/dx
4
2 +
+

+

1 Fr 2
yc
yn
y
1 +
dx
So S f
2
1
3 
0
0
2
E
V12
2g
S o x y2
y1 y2
x
V12
2g
V22
2g
2g
rectangular channel
V1
y1
V2
energy equation
V22
S f So
S f x
solve for x
prismatic channel
q
y2
V2
Q
A2
V1
Q
A1
DarcyWeisbach
n 2V 2
S f = 4/3
Rh
V2
S f =f
8 gRh
n 2V 2
Sf =
2.22 Rh4 / 3
SI units
English units
Direct Step
Limitation: channel must be _________
prismatic
(channel
geometry is independent of x so that velocity is a
function of depth only and not a function of x)
Method
identify type of profile (determines whether y is + or )
choose y and thus yi+1
calculate hydraulic radius and velocity at y i and yi+1
calculate friction slope given y i and yi+1
calculate average friction slope
calculate x
=2*y*(1+z^2)^0.5 +b
=A/P
V12
2g
V22
2g
S f So
=Q/A
=(n*V)^2/Rh^(4/3)
=y+(V^2)/(2*g)
=(G16G15)/((F15+F16)/2So)
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
y
A
P
Rh
V
Sf
E
Dx
x
0.900 1.799 4.223
0.426 0.139
0.00004 0.901
0
0.870 1.687 4.089
0.412 0.148
0.00005 0.871
0.498 0.5
J
K
L
M
T
Fr
bottom surface
3.799
0.065 0.000
0.900
3.679
0.070 0.030
0.900
Standard Step
Given a depth at one location, determine the depth at a
second given location
Step size (x) must be small enough so that changes in
water depth arent very large. Otherwise estimates of the
friction slope and the velocity head are inaccurate
Can solve in upstream or downstream direction
Usually solved upstream for subcritical
Usually solved downstream for supercritical
V12
2g
S o x y2
V22
2g
S f x
Mild Slope
If the slope is mild, the depth is less than the
critical depth, and a hydraulic jump occurs,
what happens next?
Rapidly varied flow!
When dy/dx is large then
V isnt normal to cs
Hydraulic jump! Check
conjugate depths
Sluice gate
2m
10 cm
S = 0.005
Wave Celerity
Vw
y
V+V
y+y
unsteady flow
M1 +M 2 =W +Fp1 +Fp2 +Fss
Per unit width
1
1
2
Fp = r gy 2
Fp = r g ( y +d y )
2
2
1
2
2
Fp +Fp = r g
y
y
+
d
y
(
)
2
1
VVw V+VVw
y+y
steady flow
Fp1
VVw
Fp2
V+VVw
Wave Celerity:
Momentum Conservation
M 1 V Vw y
2
M 2 =r ( V +dV  Vw ) ( V  Vw ) y
M1 +M 2 =r y ( V  Vw ) [ ( V +dV  Vw )  ( V  Vw ) ]
1
2
2
F
+
F
=
r
g
y
y
+
d
y
(
)
M1 +M 2 =r y ( V  Vw ) dV
p1
p2
1
2
2
2
rg
y
y
2
y
d
y
d
y
=r y ( V  Vw ) dV
2
gy V Vw V
VVw V+VVw
steady flow
y+y
Wave Celerity
y V Vw y y V V Vw
Mass conservation
V V Vw
y
y
gy V Vw V
gy V Vw
gy V Vw
Momentum
VVw V+VVw
y+y
y
steady flow
y
c V Vw
gy
V
yg
Fr
V
c
Wave Propagation
Supercritical flow
c<V
waves only propagate downstream
water doesnt know what is happening downstream
_________
upstream control
Critical flow
c=V
Subcritical flow
c>V
waves propagate both upstream and downstream
Discharge Measurements
SharpCrested Weir
VNotch Weir
BroadCrested Weir
Sluice Gate
Explain the exponents of H!
2
Q Cd b 2 g H 3/ 2
3
8
Cd 2 g tan H 5 / 2
15
2
2
H
3
Q Cd b g
Q Cd byg 2 gy1
V 2 gH
3/ 2
Summary (1)
All the complications of pipe flow plus
additional parameter... _________________
free surface location
Various descriptions of energy loss
Chezy, Manning, DarcyWeisbach
4
3
2
2
E
Summary (2)
Methods of calculating location of free
surface (Gradually varying)
Direct step (prismatic channel)
Standard step (iterative)
dy
So S f
Differential equation
Rapidly varying
Hydraulic jump
dx
1 Fr 2
gyc3
q (9.8m / s ) 0.3m
2
0.5
q 0.5144m 2 / s
Q qL 1.54m 3 / s
yc E
3
q2
E1 @y1
2
2 gE1
yc m
yc=0.3
Broadcrested
weir
E2
yc 0.45m
2
E1 E2 P 0.95m
q2
E1 y1
2gy12
y1 0.935
H1 y1 0.5m 0.435
Summary/Overview
Energy losses
Dimensional Analysis
Empirical
8g
V=
S f Rh
f
1 2/3 1/2
V R h So
n
Energy Equation
V12
V22
y1 + +So Dx = y2 + +S f Dx
2g
2g
V2
q2
Q2
=y +
E y
2 =y +
2
2
gy
2
gA
2g
Specific Energy
Two depths with same energy!
2
E
What next?
Water surface profiles
Rapidly varied flow
A way to move from supercritical to subcritical flow
(Hydraulic Jump)
Hydraulic Jump!